|Scientific Name:||Platygyra lamellina|
|Species Authority:||(Ehrenberg, 1834)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||DeVantier, L., Hodgson, G., Huang, D., Johan, O., Licuanan, A., Obura, D., Sheppard, C., Syahrir, M. & Turak, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Livingstone, S., Polidoro, B. & Smith, J. (Global Marine Species Assessment)|
The most important known threat for this species is extensive reduction of coral reef habitat due to a combination of threats, however, this species is also moderately susceptible to bleaching and disease. Specific population trends are unknown but population reduction can be inferred from estimated habitat loss (Wilkinson 2004). It is widespread and uncommon throughout its range and therefore is likely to be more resilient to habitat loss and reef degradation because of an assumed large effective population size that is highly connected and/or stable with enhanced genetic variability. Therefore, the estimated habitat loss of 20% from reefs already destroyed within its range is the best inference of population reduction since it may survive in coral reefs already at the critical stage of degradation (Wilkinson 2004). This inference of population reduction over three generation lengths (30 years) does not meet the threshold of a threat category. However, since this population reduction estimate is close to a threatened threshold, and because this species is moderately susceptible to a number of threats, it is likely to be one of the species lost on some reefs currently at the critical stage of degradation and therefore is Near Threatened. Predicted threats from climate change and ocean acidification make it important to reassess this species in 10 years or sooner, particularly if the species is actually observed to disappear from reefs currently at the critical stage of reef degradation.
|Range Description:||In the Indo-West Pacific, this species is found in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, southwest and northwest Indian Ocean & Arabian/Iranian Gulf, Northern Indian Ocean, Central Indo-Pacific, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan and East China Sea, Oceanic West Pacific, Central Pacific. This species is found in Palau (Randall 1995).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bahrain; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; Comoros; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Kuwait; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is usually uncommon, but can be common in places.|
There is no species specific population information available for this species. However, there is evidence that overall coral reef habitat has declined globally.
The age of first maturity of most reef building corals is typically three to eight years (Wallace 1999) and therefore we assume that average age of mature individuals is greater than eight years. Furthermore, based on average sizes and growth rates, we assume that average generation length is 10 years, unless otherwise stated. Total longevity is not known, but likely to be more than ten years. Therefore any population decline rates for the Red List assessment are measured over at least 30 years. Follow the link below for further details on population decline and generation length estimates.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in most tropical reef environments, especially back reef margins. This species is found on the back and foreslope of the reef and in lagoons.|
Platygyra species occupy a variety of reef habitats. They may form colonies a meter or more in diameter (Wood 1983).
|Generation Length (years):||10|
The major threats are global warming and predation. The bleaching of coral reefs, which has become increasingly frequent since the 1970s, is related to the ongoing rise in ocean in temperatures as a result of global climate change. Bleaching events, leading to coral mortality, are predicted to become more frequent and severe.
Other more localised threats include coral removal and harvesting, disturbance by fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, storms, and human recreation and tourism activities.
It is exported from Fiji (Hodgson pers. comm.).
This species is listed on CITES Appendix II and is present in some marine protected areas.
Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, biology and ecology of the species, habitat status, threats, uses, harvest levels, conservation measures, and trends; training in conservation measures; conservation of the habitat; restoration actions; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; and recovery management.
|Citation:||DeVantier, L., Hodgson, G., Huang, D., Johan, O., Licuanan, A., Obura, D., Sheppard, C., Syahrir, M. & Turak, E. 2008. Platygyra lamellina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T133651A3847939.Downloaded on 24 May 2017.|
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