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Cephalopholis cyanostigma

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES EPINEPHELIDAE

Scientific Name: Cephalopholis cyanostigma
Species Authority: (Valenciennes, 1828)
Common Name(s):
English Blue Spotted Hind, Bommie Cod, Coral Cod
Synonym(s):
Cephalopholis kendalli Evermann and Seale, 1907
Cephalopholis xanthopterus Allen and Stark, 1975
Serranus cyanostigma Valenciennes, 1828

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Cabanban, A.S., Fennessy, S., Myers, R. & Choat, J.H.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Justification:
C. cyanostigma is listed as Least Concern because of its generally wide range and because it is found in a number of marine protected areas, including some large and well-managed parks (e.g., Great Barrier Reef Marine Park). The species is found in the live reef food fish trade, but only occasionally. Therefore, the species warrants monitoring, but to do so will require additional data inputs.

Habitat degradation; low density on shallow reefs; overfishing (Malthusian) in part of its range; also found occasionally in the Live Reef Fish Trade.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: General
Cephalopholis cyanostigma is a western Pacific species found from the Philippines to Australia.

Specific
Dampier Islands (off Western Australia) to the Capricorn Islands (off the southern Great Barrier Reef); including Palau, New Britain (Papua New Guinea) and the Solomon Islands (Heemstra and Randall 1993); East Andaman Sea (Allen and Stone 2005), Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and northern Australia.
Countries:
Native:
Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Viet Nam
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: General
Cephalopholis cyanostigma is the most abundant small serranid on the Great Barrier Reef (avg. 7.52 individuals per 1,000 m², but more abundant on the mid rather than the outer shelf) (Pears 2005). It is common in Bali and found in the Solomon Islands (Beeing pers. comm.).

Fisheries-independent data
Visual census surveys in Sabah in the late 1990s show that the species is no longer found (Greenforce, Cabanban pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: General
Cephalopholis cyanostigma is a reef-associated species found at depths from 1 to 50 m. It inhabits shallow protected coastal reefs, in seagrass beds, and in coral-rich areas (Lieske and Myers 1994, Kuiter and Konozuka 2001). Feeds on crustaceans and fishes (Myers 1999).

Feeding
C. cyanostigma individuals 9.8 to 21.4 cm: about 75% of diet are fishes, apogonids, pomacentrids, caeesionids, clupeids, and 25 % Small invertebrates (Beukers-Stewart and Jones 2004).

Reproduction and maturity
C. cyanostigma may live up to 46 years (Mosse 1997). Late onset of sexual maturity, long spawning season (seven months) (Mosse 1997). The species is listed as protogynous; male to female ratio in Great Barrier Reef is 0.4:1 (Mosse 1997). Vulnerable to overfishing, regional variability in growth rates (Mosse 1997).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Cephalopholis cyanostigma is vulnerable to overfishing (Mosse 1997) and habitat degradation (fish-bombing, sedimentation; bleaching in some areas). It is found in incidental and subsistence fisheries and occasionally in the live reef food fish trade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Cephalopholis cyanostigma is found in marine protected areas in some parts of its range. In some areas, it has been shown to migrate out of park boundaries and can be caught 50 m beyond the boundaries of park (Zeller et al. 2003). There are no specific measures for this species.

Although it occurs in a marine protected area in Sabah, visual census has not reported any observations of this species over 10 yrs. Therefore, the park may not be effective for this particular species.

Citation: Cabanban, A.S., Fennessy, S., Myers, R. & Choat, J.H. 2008. Cephalopholis cyanostigma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 November 2014.
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