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Epinephelus miliaris

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES EPINEPHELIDAE

Scientific Name: Epinephelus miliaris
Species Authority: (Valenciennes, 1830)
Common Name(s):
English Netfin Grouper, Netfin Rockcod
French Vielle Abielle, Merou Abielle, Vielle Fou-fou
Spanish Mero Colmenar
Synonym(s):
Epinephelus dictyophorus (Bleeker, 1856)
Epinephelus diktiophorus (Bleeker, 1856)
Epinephelus fuscus Fourmanoir, 1961
Epinephelus gaimardi (Valenciennes, 1830)
Serranus diktiophorus Bleeker, 1856
Serranus gaimardi Valenciennes, 1830
Serranus miliaris Valenciennes, 1830

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Cabanban, A.S. & Sadovy, Y.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Justification:
Epinephelus miliaris is evaluated as a species of Least Concern because it is widespread and there is no evidence to support a decline of >30 %. However, if its coastal habitats (mangrove forests, seagrass beds, bays, and coral reefs) continue to be destroyed, its conservation status will worsen.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Epinephelus miliaris is an Indo-West Pacific insular species ranging from East Africa (excluding the Red Sea and Persian Gulf) to the Gilbert Islands and Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands (FishBase).
Countries:
Native:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Comoros; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Epinephelus miliaris is typically found in low densities. Fry et al. (2006) caught only four individuals (mean SL = 320 mm ±37; mean weight 835 ±258 g) in an undisturbed volcanic seamount reef, Lihir Island Group, Papua New Guinea.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: General
Epinephelus miliaris is a reef-associated species found in a variety of habitats. Juveniles (8 to 21 cm SL) have been taken from mud bottoms, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps, and from coral reefs in depths of 1 to 16 m; adults in coral reefs at depths of 18 to 180 m.

Feeding
Stomach contents reported to include juvenile clappid crab, a stomatopod, and a gastropod (Morgans 1982).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Epinephelus miliaris is threatened by overfishing and is taken by subsistence and incidental fisheries. Destruction of habitats is also a concern, including loss of mangrove forests, trawling on bays (soft-bottom environment), reclamation of seagrass beds and sedimentation and fish-bombing on coral reefs.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Epinephelus miliaris is found in marine protected areas in parts of its range.

Citation: Cabanban, A.S. & Sadovy, Y. 2008. Epinephelus miliaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 July 2014.
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