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Epinephelus labriformis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES EPINEPHELIDAE

Scientific Name: Epinephelus labriformis
Species Authority: (Jenyns, 1840)
Common Name(s):
English Starry Grouper, Red-tipped, Rock Bass, Sea Bass, Flag Cabrilla, Grouper
French Merou Etoile
Spanish Cabrilla, Cabrilla Piedrera, Cabrilla Pinta, Murico, Murique
Synonym(s):
Epinephelus ordinatus Cope, 1871
Epinephelus sellicauda Gill, 1862
Serranus labriformis Jenyns, 1840
Taxonomic Notes: A recent publication suggests change in family name to Epinephelidae (Smith and Craig 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Craig, M.T., Rocha, L., Choat, J.H., Ferreira, B. & Bertoncini, A.A.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Justification:
Epinephelus labriformis is listed as a species of Least Concern since it is a widespread and common species not currently in decline.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Epinephelus labriformis is an eastern Pacific species that occurs from Baja California (Mexico) to Peru, including the offshore islands of Cocos, Revillagigedo, and the Galápagos Islands. The range for this species has recently been extended northward to San Diego, California (USA) based on a previously overlooked museum specimen (Craig et al. 2006). Other anecdotal records also indicate that this species sparsely populates the Pacific coast of Baja California. It is present in the northern Gulf of California, reaching higher densities in the south.
Countries:
Native:
Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guadeloupe; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; United States
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: General
Epinephelus labriformis is a very common species throughout its range, especially common in the Galápagos Islands and off Mazatian and Puerto Vallarta (central Mexico).

Fishery dependent
Anecdotal reports indicate that the species has not declined substantially in Loreto (Baja California).

Genetics
Recent genetic survey indicates strong population connectivity throughout entire range.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: General
Epinephelus labriformis is a demersal species that inhabits rocky reefs to at least 30 m. Adults are most abundant in shallow water and also occurs to a depth of at least 30 m.

Feeding
Epinephelus labriformis is a solitary predator that seems to feed on smaller fishes by day and crustaceans after dark. Spawning occurs in late summer.

Age and growth
Age and growth studies indicate a maximum age of 30 years (Craig et al. 1999).

Reproduction
Recent unpublished data confirms protogyny (B. Erisman pers. comm.)

Species does not appear to form aggregations in the Gulf of California (B. Erisman pers. comm.)
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Epinephelus labriformis is in subsistence, artisinal, sub-national fisheries, but it is currently not considered a major threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Epinephelus labriformis occurs in protected areas throughout its range.

Citation: Craig, M.T., Rocha, L., Choat, J.H., Ferreira, B. & Bertoncini, A.A. 2008. Epinephelus labriformis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 September 2014.
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