|Scientific Name:||Cephalopholis sexmaculata|
|Species Authority:||(Rüppell, 1830)|
Cephalopholis coatesi Whitley, 1937
Cephalopholis gibbus Fourmanoir, 1955
Cephalopholis sexmaculatus (Rüppell, 1830)
Epinephelus sexmaculata (Rüppell, 1830)
Epinephelus sexmaculatus (Rüppell, 1830)
Serranus sexmaculatus Rüppell, 1830
Serranus zanana Valenciennes, 1828
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Cabanban, A.S., Myers, R., Yeeting, B., Pollard, D., Kulbicki, M. & Fennessy, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)|
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is listed as Least Concern owing to its widespread distribution, its occurrence in marine protected areas and its deepwater and cryptic habits. However, it is a known component of the live reef food fish trade, with known overfishing of juveniles in parts of its range, and degradation of coral reef habitat. This species warrants close monitoring.
|Range Description:||Cephalopholis sexmaculata is an Indo-Pacific species, occurring from the Red Sea to South Africa, and eastward to Tahiti (French Polynesia). It has been reported from the Arafura Sea (Russel and Houston 1989). It has also been recorded from Yemen (Rouphael et al. 1998). Reports by Heemstra and Randall (1984) from the Gulf of Oman, Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka are unsubstantiated. It is absent from the Persian Gulf and is not yet known from Lakshadweep Islands (India).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Christmas Island; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; French Polynesia; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is common in specific reef habitats on outer coral reef slopes (caves and crevices) (Randall and Heemstra 1991) and also on deep walls in caves (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001).
It was uncommon in shallow water visual censuses along the Great Barrier Reef (Pears 2005). It was also not common in New Caledonia (0.01% of the grouper catch) (IRD database). It is generally rare in survey and catch statistics (Myers pers comm.). In visual surveys in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia, ths species was found only on the outer barrier reef (density=0.2 fish/1,000 m²). (IRD database).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is a reef-associated species ranging in depth from 6 to 150 m. It is found in rich coastal to outer reefs, usually along deep walls with caves, rich with invertebrate growth such as large sponges or soft corals (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001). The species is also found inside the lagoon (Sluka 2002). Cephalopholis sexmaculata is a secretive species that is active nocturnally in shallow water and diurnally in deeper water (Shpigel and Fishelson 1991b).
Cephalopholis sexmaculata feeds mainly on fishes (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
Growth and maturity
Length at maturity = 24.91 cm (Mangi and Roberts 2006).
Maximum total length = 50 cm TL (Randall 1995); Linf = 220 mm SL, K =0.63 (Fry et al. 2006).
150 to 240 mm SL = 2 to 8 years (Fry et al. 2006).
The main threats to Cephalopholis sexmaculata are overfishing and habitat loss.
Cephalopholis sexmaculata is incidental and small-scale fishery and found in the Live Reef Fish Trade (LRFT). It is captured for food in artisinal and subsistence fisheries as juveniles (14.4 cm) in Kenya (Mangi and Roberts 2006).
Northern Marianas catch data was 120 kg/yr in 1950s and dropped to and fluctuated around 25 kg/yr from 1986 to 2002 under increasing fishing pressure (Zeller 2006).
It is commercially important in Papua New Guinea but assessed as extremely vulnerable to commercial fishing (Fry et al. 2006). It constitutes less than 1% of catch in Pohnpei (Rhodes and Tupper 2007).
|Conservation Actions:||Cephalopholis sexmaculata is found in marine protected areas throughout its range, including the Great Barrier Reef. No specific measures for the species.|
|Citation:||Cabanban, A.S., Myers, R., Yeeting, B., Pollard, D., Kulbicki, M. & Fennessy, S. 2008. Cephalopholis sexmaculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 September 2014.|
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