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Cephalopholis panamensis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES EPINEPHELIDAE

Scientific Name: Cephalopholis panamensis
Species Authority: (Steindachner, 1877)
Common Name(s):
English Pacific Graysby, Panama Graysby
Spanish Bacalao, Cabrilla Enjambre, Enjambre
French Cone Bane
Synonym(s):
Epinephelus panamesis (Steindachner, 1877)
Petrometopon panamensis (Steindachner, 1877)
Serranus panamensis Steindachner, 1877
Taxonomic Notes: A recent publication suggests changing the family name to Epinephelidae (Smith and Craig 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Craig, M.T.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Justification:
Cephalopholis panamensis is listed as Least Concern because of a stable population and is not targeted by fisheries. It does not appear to be in decline.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Cephalopholis panamensis is an eastern Pacific species that is narrowly distributed from the Gulf of California to Ecuador and the Galápagos Islands.
Countries:
Native:
Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guadeloupe; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is currently limited information on populations of Cephalopholis panamensis over its range.

The population of C. panamensis in Loreto (Baja California) appears stable from informal surveys 2000-2007 (B. Erisman, MTC pers. obs.).

REEF surveys indicate ~55 to 60% site frequency from 2000 to 2006 (www.reef.org).

Anecdotal surveys by B. Erisman and M. Buckhorn indicate its population has been, and continues to be stable (six years of survey). REEF surveys also indicate that the population has remained stable since 2000. While the species is incidentally caught and may be taken by subsistence fisherman, there is no direct threat to this species by intentional harvest.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: General
Cephalopholis panamensis is a common, shy and secretive reef-associated, non-migratory species that is found on coral reefs and rocky shore habitats. Maximum depth to at least 30 m. Maximum size recently increased to 387 mm TL (M. Craig SIOMVC). There is one doubtful record to 76 m. It prefers shallower, warmer water than many of its congeners.

Reproduction
B. Erisman recent confirmed protogyny for the species. Spawning peaks in July/August in Loreto, Mexico (B. Erisman, SIO, pers. comm.).

Age
Maximum age is approximately 25 years (Craig et al. 1999).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threat levels for Cephalopholis panamensis are low. It is primarily targeted by subsistence and recreational fisheries and occurs as incidental catch in the commercial fishery.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures for Cephalopholis panamensis, although it occurs in various marine parks throughout Baja California (Loreto, Cabo Pulmo) and the Galapagos Islands.

Citation: Craig, M.T. 2008. Cephalopholis panamensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 December 2014.
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