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Macaca nemestrina

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Macaca nemestrina
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English Southern Pig-tailed Macaque, Sundaland Pigtail Macaque, Pig-tailed Macaque, Pigtail Macaque, Sunda Pig-tailed Macaque
French Macaque À Queue De Cochon
Spanish Macaca Cola De Cerdo
Synonym(s):
Macaca brachyurus (Hamilton Smith, 1842)
Macaca broca Miller, 1906
Macaca carpolegus (Raffles, 1821)
Macaca fusca (Shaw, 1800)
Macaca libidinosus I. Geoffroy, 1826
Macaca longicruris (Link, 1795)
Macaca maimon (de Blainville, 1839)
Macaca nucifera Sody, 1936
Macaca platypygos (Schreber, 1774)
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon formerly included M. leonina as a subspecies (Groves 2001). There is some hybridization with M. leonina in a small area of southern peninsular Thailand, and on the islands of Phuket and Yao Yai (Groves 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Richardson, M., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Konstant, B.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species has declined by at least 30% over the past 30-36 years (three generations) due primarily to hunting and habitat loss.
History:
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Commercially Threatened (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan Borneo, and Sumatra), Malaysia (including the Malay Peninsula and Sabah and Sarawak Borneo), and southern peninsular Thailand. There are small, introduced populations on Singapore and in the Natuna Islands (Groves 2001). The precise geographic boundary between M. nemestrina and M. leonina is not well defined. There are populations of the two taxa found on either side of the distribution limit in the Isthmus of Kra, but many of these populations are the result of release by humans. The two species hybridize in a small area of southern peninsular Thailand, as well as on the islands of Phuket and Yao Yai (Groves 2001).
Countries:
Native:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Kalimantan); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah); Thailand
Introduced:
Singapore
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is common in some parts of its range, but numbers have been severely reduced in many places due to hunting and habitat loss.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a predominantly terrestrial animal, although it readily climbs and forages in the forest canopy. It is diurnal and frugivorous. It occupies lowland primary and secondary forest, as well as coastal, swamp and montane forest. It prefers dense rainforest at all elevations, but is equally at home in agricultural land.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): These animals are threatened by loss of habitat, which is very serious in many parts of its range. There is extensive loss of lowland forest in Malaysia and Indonesia to expanding oil palm plantations, as well as to logging and agricultural expansion. This species is also frequently shot as a crop pest (M. Richardson pers. comm.) and hunted for food.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. Further studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, and threats to this species.

Citation: Richardson, M., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Konstant, B. 2008. Macaca nemestrina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 July 2014.
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