|Scientific Name:||Lophocebus albigena|
|Species Authority:||(Gray, 1850)|
Lophocebus albigena (Lydekker, 1900) subspecies johnstoni
Lophocebus albigena Groves, 1978 subspecies osmani
Lophocebus albigena (Schwarz, 1910) subspecies zenkeri
|Taxonomic Notes:||While Grubb et al. (2003) did not list any subspecies, Groves (2001, 2005), building on his earlier work (Groves 1978) recognized three subspecies: L. a. albigena; L. a. johnstoni; and L. a. osmani. At the time of finalizing this assessment, Groves (2007) published a revision of the Lophocebus albigena group in the light of the Phylogenetic Species Concept and raised the three subspecies recognized by Groves (1978) to species rank, and also described the mangabeys of Uganda, not recognized as distinct at all in the 1978 revision, as a fourth species, Lophocebus ugandae.
More recently, Groves (2007), adopting a phylogenetic species concept, considered all three subspecies he recognized earlier as diagnosably distinct, and upgraded them to full species rank. In addition, the mangabeys of Uganda, not recognized as distinct at all in the 1978 revision, were shown to constitute a fourth species, Lophocebus ugandae, which is apparently confined to Uganda, and as such is probably Uganda’s only endemic primate. This paper became available just as the primate assessments were being finalized for the 2008 IUCN Red List, and so the single assessment for L. albigena here is provisional.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Oates, J.F., Groves, C.P. & Ehardt, C.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern is it remains a relatively widespread and common species, occupying both primary and secondary forest, although hunting pressure and habitat loss are resulting in localized declines. However, the recent publication by Groves (2007) in which a number of putative subspecies are raised to species level, means that all forms require urgent reassessment, especially the form osmani from the Cameroon plateau region.
|Range Description:||This species is primarily found in central Africa, from the Cross River, Nigeria, through to the Nile, north of the Congo River and the Lualaba River, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its range encompasses south-east Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, mainland Equatorial Guinea, south-western Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Uganda, western Kenya, and extreme north-western Tanzania. Although primarily a lowland species, it can be found up to 1,600 m in strictly equatorial zones.|
Native:Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Rwanda; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread and common throughout much of its range. Densities are estimated to be between 18 and 77 animals per sq km, and 10-20 individuals per sq km are usual in the mixed primate communities of Cameroon and Gabon. The highest density (77/km²) was recorded in a Ugandan gallery forest, where only two marginally sympatric species were present.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in both primary and secondary forest. It is arboreal, spending most of the time in the upper canopy (Waser 1977; Shah 2003). Diet consists mainly of fruit and seeds; preferred species include false nutmeg (Pycnanthus), breadfruit (Treculia), dwarf dates (Phoenix), Erythrophleum fruit and seeds, and oil palm (Elaeis) (Waser 1977; Olupot et al. 1998; Poulson et al. 2001; Shah 2003). This species has non-territorial home ranges of approximately 2-4 km², and there is extensive overlap between groups (Waser 1977; Olupot et al. 1998; Shah 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat loss through agricultural expansion, and hunting for bushmeat, are the major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed under CITES Appendix II and as Class B under the African Convention. It occurs in a number of protected areas across its range.|
|Citation:||Oates, J.F., Groves, C.P. & Ehardt, C. 2008. Lophocebus albigena. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 December 2013.|
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