|Scientific Name:||Leucaspius delineatus|
|Species Authority:||(Heckel, 1843)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species but locally threatened by draining of wetlands.
|Range Description:||From lower Rhine and northern Germany eastward to southern Baltic basin; Black Sea basin south to Rioni drainage, northern and western Caspian basin (south to Kura drainage); Aegean Sea basin (from Maritsa to Nestos). Absent in Italy, Adriatic basin, Great Britain and Scandinavia (except southernmost Sweden). Widely introduced in France, upper Rhine drainage, locally in Great Britain and Switzerland and invasive in western Siberia (Ob basin in Russia and Kazakhstan).|
Native:Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Kazakhstan; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Lowland riverine habitats especially oxbows and other water bodies only connected to rivers during floods. Often found in ponds, steppe lakes and small water bodies not connected to rivers. May occur in any habitat with few or no predators.
Biology: Gregarious. Spawns for the first time at one year; spawns only for a single season. Spawns in May-September, when temperature reaches 16°C. Females may spawn about once every three weeks. Males are territorial; they clean the spawning site and guard the eggs, which are attached in strings around roots, reeds, aquatic vegetation or any material drifting on the water surface. Feeds mostly on zooplankton and terrestrial insects. Stunted populations may form in predator-free habitats. Often quickly reaches newly-created water bodies by still unknown mechanisms. Scales were used to produce Essence d'Orient, which was used for coating artificial pearls.
|Major Threat(s):||Drainage of wetlands|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Leucaspius delineatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 August 2014.|
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