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Eisenia anzac 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Annelida Clitellata Megadrilaceae Lumbricidae

Scientific Name: Eisenia anzac Blakemore, 2011
Taxonomic Source(s): Blakemore, R.J. 2012. Japanese earthworms revisited a decade on (Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea). Zoology in the Middle East 58(4): 15-22. doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2012.10648981.
Taxonomic Notes:  When originally described (Blakemore and Grygier 2011) the question was raised whether this is an endemic native, a translocated native or an introduced exotic.  Its nearest congeners however, from morphological and molecular analysis, appear to be Japanese native species and the genus and family are also endemic to Japan, but not uniquely (see Blakemore 2012b: Appendix).  On balance this is most likely a native taxon that is apparently rare, although there has yet to be any systematic field survey of Japan's earthworms (Easton 1981, Blakemore 2003, 2012a).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2018
Date Assessed: 2017-08-02
Assessor(s): Blakemore, R.J.
Reviewer(s): Mumford, N.
Justification:
Due to the resticted size of AOO and EOO, the declining quality of habitat and 1 location, this species is Red Listed as Critically Endangered. Threats to this species are intense urbanisation and the national highways that surround this small park.  Exotic plants and trees were introduced to this area and adjacent parks. Further eco-taxonomic survey is required at the type-locality and further afield to determine the conservation status of this taxon.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This monotypic species is known only from a park beside the British Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery in Hodogaya near Yokohama in Kanagawa-ken, Japan. Specimens from Lake Biwa provisionally identified with this taxon (Blakemore and Grygier 2011: 267 footnote) were later shown to differ sufficiently on their DNA barcode to warrant separate specific status (Blakemore 2016: fig. 4). The area of occupancy (AOO) for this species is 4 km² and the extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4 km².
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):20
Upper elevation limit (metres):20
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Only a single specimen of this monotypic species has ever been discovered.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The holotype specimen was collected from under an introduced eucalypt tree in a pubic park along with Eisenia japonica hiramoto and Amynthas micronarius (Blakemore 2012).  The park where it was collected has several introduced trees and plant species.  Adjacent is Yokohama City Children's Botanical Gardens.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is not utilised.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This seemingly rare species was collected from a small park surrounded by residential houses and public highways.  These urban and transportation developments may have impacted upon the actual or potential habitats of this species.  Other possible threats are from predation (e.g. planarian flatworms, birds, moles, etc.) or competition with other species, including other native or exotic earthworms.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are currently in place for this species (the park is not known to be a nature reserve). Further research is required to discover more about the species life history, population size and ways to conserve the species.

Citation: Blakemore, R.J. 2018. Eisenia anzac. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T117372657A117374393. . Downloaded on 20 July 2018.
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