Leptaxis caldeirarum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Hygromiidae

Scientific Name: Leptaxis caldeirarum Morelet & Drouet, 1857
Taxonomic Notes: Morelet and Drouët’s (1857) original description does not mention type locality, so “The Azores” is currently accepted. Morelet (1860) only found it in Caldeira das Sete Cidades, São Miguel, thus restricting the type locality.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-11-19
Assessor(s): Frias Martins, A.
Reviewer(s): Neubert, E., Cuttelod, A. & Nichols, C.
This species is restricted to the Sete Cidades volcanic complex, on the western tip of the São Miguel island. It has an Extent of occurrence of less than 100 km2 and an Area of occupancy of less than 100 km2. It is very rare and is threatened by the fragmentation of its habitat. It occurs in forested ravines and its population is now considered to be severely fragmented. It is therefore assessed as Endangered (EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:L.caldeirarum is only found on São Miguel island, Azores.
Countries occurrence:
Portugal (Azores)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:100
Number of Locations:2
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


Restricted to the Sete Cidades volcanic complex, on the western tip of the São Miguel island. Morelet (1860) stated that this species was very rare; Backhuys (1975) did not find any specimens. Data resulting from a survey (A. Martins pers. comm. 2010) showed that it is indeed very rare and that it lives around the crater of Sete Cidades, from about 500 m (rim of the crater) to about 150 m (Candelária, north 37º 49' 56"; west 025º 49' 43").

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Leptaxis caldeirarum lives in secondarily forested areas and native vegetation, where it is extremely rare. In secondarily forested areas, it was collected near Mosteiros (north 37º 52' 31"; west 025º 49' 28"; 240 m) and Candelária (north 37º 49' 56"; west 025º 49' 43"; 150 m), two separate ravines descending from outside the crater to the sea. There is no reliable information on the distribution of the species amidst native vegetation, except that it is extremely rare.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no use or trade information for this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The rarity of this species was recorded since it was first found (Morelet 1860). It was re-discovered in the 1980s and remains extremely rare. The exiguity of its range and the severe habitat fragmentation within it due to human activity (clearing forest for pasture) may be a severe threat. It has been found living in stands of native vegetation, where it also remains apparently extremely rare, although no quantitative studies are available.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation actions in place for this species. It is recommended that the remaining natural habitat surrounding the outside of the crater be protected from further clearance by human activities.

Citation: Frias Martins, A. 2011. Leptaxis caldeirarum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T11656A3300591. . Downloaded on 19 March 2018.
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