|Scientific Name:||Lasmigona holstonia|
|Species Authority:||I. Lea, 1838|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Until recently Lasmigona etowaensis was considered conspecific with Lasmigona holstonia, but the two were distinguished using genetic analyses (A. Bogan, unpublished data). These two species cannot be reliably separated using conchological characters (Williams et al. 2008).
A list of synonyms for this species can be found on The MUSSEL project web site (Graf and Cummings 2011).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Cummings, K. & Cordeiro, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Böhm, M. & Collen, B.|
|Contributor(s):||Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., McGuinness, S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Kasthala, G., Thorley, J., Herdson, R., McMillan, K. & Collins, A.|
Lasmigona holstonia has been assessed as Least Concern due to its wide distribution throughout the Ohio and Tennessee River drainages. However, this species is declining in a portion of its range and its habitat is likely to decline further. In addition, this species has been given a status of G3 - vulnerable status by NatureServe (2009), although it has been given regional assessments of critically imperiled in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina and Virginia.
|Range Description:||Lasmigona holstonia occurs in the Ohio and Tennessee River drainages. In the Ohio River drainage, it has been reported only from the New River system in Virginia and West Virginia (Pinder et al. 2002). In the Tennessee River drainage, L. holstonia is known from headwaters in southwestern Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee downstream to the Paint Rock River system in northeastern Alabama (Clarke 1985). There are also a few records from headwaters of the Duck River, central Tennessee (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). In the Cumberland River drainage L. holstonia is known from headwaters of the Caney Fork (Parmalee and Bogan 1998) (Williams et al. 2008). Its distribution was originally thought to extend to the Moblie River and its basin, but recent genetic analysis has found this form to represent a distinct species (Williams et al. 2008).|
Native:United States (Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is declining in parts of its range. It is considered to be endangered in Alabama (Williams et al. 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a species of small to medium creeks, often found in very small streams where no other mussels occur. Ortmann (1918) reported the species from larger rivers (i.e., Holston and Hiwassee) but only from small side channels. It is usually found in areas with at least some current, usually in sandy substrates, though may also be found in mud or gravel (Williams et al. 2008).
This species is a long-term brooder. In the upper Tennessee River drainage gravid females have been reported with embryos in August and mature glochidia in September and May of the following year (Ortmann 1921, Clarke 1985). Fishes reported to serve as glochidial hosts in laboratory trials include Ambloplites rupestris (Rock Bass) (Centrarchidae); Cottus carolinae (Banded Sculpin) (Cottidae); Campostoma anomalum (Central Stone-roller), Luxilus chrysocephalus (Striped Shiner), Pimephales notatus (Bluntnose Minnow), Semotilus atromaculatus (Creek Chub) and an unidentified species of Notropis (Cyprinidae); and Etheostoma caeruleum (Rainbow Darter), Etheostoma rufilineatum (Redline Darter) and Etheostoma simoterum (Snubnose Darter) (Percidae) (Williams et al. 2008).
|Major Threat(s):||The threats to this species are unknown, but most likely include disturbance through sedimentation and agricultural run-off, and habitat degradation as a result of pollution from domestic, agricultural and industrial sources. The sensitivity of this species to disturbance has yet to be characterised (K. Cummings pers. comm. 2010).|
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place, although the catchments within which it is distributed are mostly covered by the remit of several protected areas. This species has been given a Global Heritage Status of G3 - vulnerable (NatureServe 2009), although it has been given regional asssessments of 'critically imperiled' in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina and Virginia. A recent Red List assessment has been given of Near Threatened (NT) (Version 2.3) in 1996. Williams et al. (in press) lists this species as vulnerable according to the AFS assessment.
Further research is suggested to resolve taxonomic issues for this species and gather information on the specific ecology and threats of this species.
|Citation:||Cummings, K. & Cordeiro, J. 2011. Lasmigona holstonia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 October 2014.|
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