|Scientific Name:||Ambloplites cavifrons|
|Species Authority:||Cope, 1868|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Formerly regarded as a subspecies of A. rupestris, with which cavifrons hybridizes in one area but not in others (see Lee et al. 1980).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Least Concern because although the extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, and probably population size are not very large (perhaps below the thresholds for Vulnerable), the species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations, and the trend over the past 10 years or three generations appears to be relatively stable.
|Range Description:||Range includes the Chowan, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, and Cape Fear river drainages, Virginia and North Carolina (Menhinick 1991, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Page and Burr 2011). This bass occupies the Valley and Ridge, Piedmont, and upper Coastal Plain provinces (also the fringes of the Blue Ridge). This species is apparently extirpated from the extreme upper Roanoke system (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Roanoke bass have been stocked n the upper and lower James and middle New drainages in Virginia and in North Carolina impoundments and streams, but these stockings did not establish extant populations (McBride et al. 1980, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by several dozen occurrences (subpopulations) (Menhinick 1991, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Total adult population size is unknown. This bass is rare or uncommon in Virginia (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). In North Carolina, it is moderately widespread and occurs over several hundred stream miles in Tar and Neuse systems (H. LeGrand pers. comm., 1997); but it is usually uncommon to rare even in areas known to harbor populations (Braswell 1991).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining. Jelks et al. (2008) indicated that this species had the same status (Vulnerable) in 2008 as it did in 1989, seemingly meaning that it had been relatively stable over that period.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This bass typically occurs rocky and sandy pools of creeks and small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011), with moderate to low gradient, clear to often moderately turbid warm water, and rock, gravel, sand, and silt substrates. It is most common in clearer, firmer bottomed streams; occurrence over soft substrates is most typical in the lower Piedmont and upper Coastal Plain. Rarely is it found naturally in impoundments. In the upper Coastal Plain, it occupies stained flowing waters lined with swamps (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). In the upper Piedmont, adults and large juveniles are in deep runs, in the current-swept heads of pools, and sometimes in the calm parts of pools (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). The young probably occur well under cover in calm water (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). In hatchery ponds, nests were constructed and guarded by males in shallow water on gravel; sand and muck substrates were avoided.|
|Major Threat(s):||Decline of this species is attributed to impoundment, pollution, competition with introduced populations of rock bass (A. rupestris), and adverse spring stream conditions in certain years (Petrimoulx 1983). Burkhead and Jenkins (1991) identified siltation as the probable cause of decline, together with competition and introgressive hybridization with the introduced rock bass in the upper Roanoke River drainage.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species would benefit from habitat restoration, improved habitat protection and management, and better information on distribution, abundance, population trend, and threats.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Ambloplites cavifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2014.|
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