|Scientific Name:||Guaruba guarouba|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1788)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Hennessey, A., Olmos, F., Ridgely, R., Silveira, L. & Yamashita, C.|
This species has a very small population which is semi-nomadic along rivers in the Amazon Basin, and has suffered from habitat loss and extensive trapping for trade. It is consequently listed as Endangered. However, recent information suggests the population may be greater than was previously estimated, and if this is confirmed the species may warrant downlisting to Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||Guaruba guarouba is endemic to Brazil, where most records come from between the Tocantins, lower Xingú and Tapajós rivers in the Amazon Basin of Pará. There are additional records from adjacent north Maranhão, where populations survive around Gurupi and the Rio Capim (C. Yamashita in litt. 2000); Rondônia, where the species was recorded once at Jamari in 1989, but has not been seen subsequently despite surveys (F. Olmos in litt. 1999); Mato Grosso, where it was seen once at Alta Floresta in 1991 (Low 1995c), and Amazonas, where the species was recorded in 2007 (Laranjeiras and Cohn-Haft 2009). It may always have been scarce, but overall numbers must have declined very considerably.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is apparently nomadic in lowland humid forest. In the dry season, it frequents the canopy of tall "terra firme" (not flooded) forest but, in the breeding season, appears to inhabit clearings with few scattered trees. Tree-cavities are used for nesting and roosting. It feeds on fruit, berries, seeds and nuts and, seasonally, on crops (especially maize, which ripens immediately before fledging). Breeding generally occurs between December and April, but has been noted in October. Breeding is apparently communal, with several females contributing two or three eggs to each nest and several adults caring for the young. Up to nine young have been recorded in a nest in the wild, and up to 14 in captivity.|
Habitat destruction and fragmentation as a result of road construction, subsequent development and settlement, with accompanying illegal logging, is a threat in the east of its range. Selective logging of primary hardwoods removes suitable roosting and nesting cavities (Yamashita 2003). It has been extensively trapped for trade, but this is no longer a major concern as trade is now usually within the substantial captive population, and does not have a significant impact on wild birds (L. F. Silveira in litt. 2012).
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II and protected under Brazilian law (and has been proposed as the national bird of Brazil). A campaign tackling bird trade in Bolivia may help curtail international trade (A. B. Hennessey in litt. 2009). A population is relatively well-protected in Tapajós National Park, and a remnant population may survive in Gurupi Biological Reserve. Jamari National Forest is poorly protected and suffers constant pressure from squatters, loggers and poachers (F. Olmos in litt. 1999). Conservation of this species in reserves is problematic because of its apparent nomadism. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to discover new populations, especially in the south and west of its range. Ensure the de facto protection of Gurupi Biological Reserve. Maintain the integrity of Tapajós National Park. Protect and manage intervening areas to facilitate nomadic movements. Enforce legal restrictions on trade, especially in internal markets.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Guaruba guarouba. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2013.|
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