|Scientific Name:||Glaucidium nubicola|
|Species Authority:||Robbins & Stiles, 1999|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Freile, J., Ridgely, R. & Tellkamp, M.|
This species has been recorded at few locations, of which at least one has been completely deforested since 1987. Continuing habitat loss elsewhere within this small range qualifies the species as Vulnerable. Recent information suggests the species may have a smaller range than was thought, and if this range is confirmed to be severely fragmented and continuously declining, the species may warrant uplisting to Endangered.
|Range Description:||Glaucidium nubicola occurs on the west slope of the west Andes of central and south Colombia and north Ecuador. From the northernmost known site, at Alto de Pisones in Risaralda, its range extends south along the Andes, with records in Valle del Cauca (one old specimen) and Nariño, Colombia, and Carchi (one site), Pichincha (three sites) and Cotopaxi (one site), Ecuador (Robbins and Stiles 1999, Freile et al. 2003). A tape-recording of a Glaucidium made at Buenaventura (El Oro) in 1985 has subsequently been identified as this species, representing a significant southward extension of its range in Ecuador (Freile et al. 2003). This record is likely to relate to an isolated population (Freile and Castro submitted). It may yet be found to occur from south-west Ecuador continuously to the northern tip of the Andes in Antioquia, Colombia (Robbins and Stiles 1999), although habitat in the intervening range is highly fragmented (J. F. Freile in litt. 2004).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 individuals. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It occurs in very humid, primary cloud-forest, invariably on steep slopes at altitudes of c.1,200-2,000 m (Freile and Castro submitted). It probably breeds principally between February and June. Invertebrates (especially insects) and small vertebrates (including lizards and possibly birds) appear to be the major dietary components (Robbins and Stiles 1999). The species appears to be relatively tolerant of habitat loss,as it is found in secondary forest and at forest edges (Freile et al. 2003, R. S. Ridgely in litt. 2001), but it is not thought to be tolerant of severe habitat degradation (J. F. Freile in litt. 2004, M. Tellkamp in litt. 2005).
|Major Threat(s):||The Chocó region has long been a source of timber, but logging has intensified since the mid-1970s (WWF and IUCN 1994-1997, Robbins and Stiles 1999). When the type-specimen was collected, logging was progressing rapidly, and the area has almost certainly been completely deforested (Robbins and Stiles 1999). West Ecuador has already lost over 85% of forest cover in the Pacific lowland and slopes (Dodson and Gentry 1991). Infrastructural improvement in the Chocó, particularly the rapid expansion of the road network, is resulting in increased logging, small-scale agriculture and gold mining (Salaman 1994, WWF and IUCN 1994-1997, Salaman and Stiles 1996, Robbins and Stiles 1999). There is intensive agricultural development, especially coca plantations and cattle-farming (Salaman 1994, WWF and IUCN 1994-1997). However, extremely high rainfall renders parts of its range fairly inhospitable, and timber extraction is probably the most significant threat (Robbins and Stiles 1999).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It has been recorded in the small Río Ñambi and La Planada reserves in Nariño (Robbins and Stiles 1999). A management plan for Alto de Pisones is in preparation, which a local organisation hopes to execute despite political instablity in the area. Furthermore, the area may be gazetted within the proposed Caramanta National Park (Stiles 1998). Significant populations may occur in Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve (Imbabura), Los Cedros Biological Reserve (Esmeraldas/Imbabura) and Maquipucuna Reserve (Pichincha) in Ecuador (Best et al. 1996, Robbins and Stiles 1999), and Farallones de Cali (Valle del Cauca) and Munchique National Parks (Cauca) in Colombia (Robbins and Stiles 1999). There are records in Ecuador from Mindo-Nambillo Protection Forest, Tandayapa Private Reserve, Guajalito Private Reserve, Otonga Private Reserve and Buenaventura Private Reserve. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to clarify its population and distribution. Gazette Caramanta National Park. Complete and implement the management plan for Alto de Pisones.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Glaucidium nubicola. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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