|Scientific Name:||Cranioleuca henricae|
|Species Authority:||Maijer & Fjeldså, 1997|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Hennessey, A., Herzog, S. & Krabbe, N.|
This recently described species has a very small range in which suitable habitat is severely fragmented and continuing to decline. As a result, it qualifies as Endangered.
Cranioleuca henricae occurs in dry valleys on the east slope of the Andes in west Bolivia (Cochabamba and La Paz). The only viable populations known are in the río Cotacajes basin, with one below Inquisivi, La Paz, where it is common, one at Cotacajes, Cochabamba, where it is uncommon, and two recently discovered localities at Machaca and Cuti, both Cochabamba (Maijer and Fjeldså 1997, Herzog et al. 1999, S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). However, a recent visit to Machaca identified only two suitable gulleys, each home to no more than 10 mature trees (F. Rheindt in litt. 2012). A group of 3-4 birds was found in the gulley closest to town at about 2800m, but none were found at the more distant, higher gulley at c. 2950m, or in any of the low disturbed scrub that now covers the hillsides (F. Rheindt in litt. 2012). Records of 1-2 individuals come from Churupampa and nearby Sorata in the río Consata basin Maijer and Fjeldså 1997, Lowen and Kennedy 1999), and Mecapaca in the upper río La Paz basin, La Paz (B. Hennessey per S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999). A record of a Cranioleuca sp. in suitable habitat at Saila Pata in the río Cotacajes basin may be attributable to this species (N. Krabbe per S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999). Searches in the Consata basin (where very little suitable habitat remains) and in the lower río La Paz basin have not revealed further localities (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). One of the recently discovered populations is highly threatened by a road construction project which will make the area directly accessible from La Paz (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). Numbers are probably below 3,000 mature individuals, but are difficult to estimate because of the paucity of data (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007).
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 mature individuals, based on an assessment by S. K. Herzog (in litt. 1999) that numbers are probably below 3,000 mature individuals. This is broadly consistent with estimates based on the extent of its range and the density of other Cranioleuca and Synallaxis spinetails in the BirdLife Population Densities Database. It equates to a population size of 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in the understorey of dry, seasonally deciduous forest in rain-shadow valleys at c.1,800-3,300 m (Maijer and Fjeldså 1997, Herzog et al. 1999, S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). Low, bushy vegetation in adjacent cleared areas may also be used, and one record was in a plantation of exotic Cupressus sp., but it has not been found in orchards or Eucalyptus plantations (Maijer and Fjeldså 1997). It may depend on the presence of the epiphytic 'grey beard' bromeliad for nesting sites (Hennessey in litt. 2006). A possible juvenile and apparent pairs have been observed in January, while mixed-species feeding parties are joined in the dry season (the austral winter) (Maijer and Fjeldså 1997, Herzog et al. 1999).|
|Major Threat(s):||Much suitable habitat has long been destroyed or severely degraded (Maijer and Fjeldså 1997, S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). Plantations of Eucalyptus in the Inquisivi-Quime area, combined with the destruction of native vegetation and high grazing pressure, have caused hydrological changes leading to massive soil erosion and severe landslides (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). The destruction of its stronghold by landslides is predicted by 2050, perhaps considerably sooner, unless action is taken (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). Dry woodlands in La Paz and Cochabamba are threatened by cutting for firewood, selective logging and poor regeneration because of grazing by goats and burning (Maijer and Fjeldså 1997, S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). One of the two recently discovered populations in the río Cotacajes basin is highly threatened by a road construction project, which will make the area directly accessible from La Paz and make the forest vulnerable to exploitation for charcoal production for the La Paz market (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). The process of removing tree limbs for charcoal allows regeneration of the forest, but impacted trees hold less of the epiphytic "grey beard" bromeliad which is the specialized nesting site for the Bolivian Spinetail (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). Although many older trees, together with the "grey beard" bromeliad remain at Machaca, pressure from overgrazing by cattle is restricting plant regeneration and is likely to have a negative impact on the forest ecosystem (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). The "grey beard" bromeliad may also be less abundant than in the past as a result of Eucalyptus plantations and agricultural plots above the valleys where it occurs disturbing water retention properties (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Targeted searches have resulted in some of the most recent records, but also a number of negative results from apparently suitable habitat (Herzog et al. 1999, S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). It is not currently known from any protected areas. Proposals have recently been made to protect the Machaca stronghold by developing a long-term conservation strategy working closely with the local community and involving local environmental education, sustainable development workshops, agricultural assessment and development, and the promotion of the area as a birdwatching attraction; with the eventual aim of protecting a core area as a reserve (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to obtain an improved estimate of the population. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation within its range. Act to prevent further erosion and landslides below Inquisivi (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007). Support the maintenance of traditional land-use and tenure systems that allow natural woodland habitats to persist (Maijer and Fjeldså 1997). Establish municipal or private reserves that ensure protection of the best remaining forest patches: despite the remoteness of the area, with the new road being built sustainable ethno-ecotourism could be a new source of income for local communities that protect forest patches (S. K. Herzog in litt. 1999, 2007).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Cranioleuca henricae. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2013.|
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