|Scientific Name:||Apalis lynesi|
|Species Authority:||Vincent, 1933|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Apalis thoracica (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into A. thoracica, A. fuscigularis, A. lynesi and A. flavigularis following Collar et al. (1994). A. t. lynesi differs from nearest geographical neighbour flavigularis in its: grey head and cheeks; black chin to breast, extending beyond normal thoracica breast-line area; sexual dimorphism in different features (throat/breast pattern in lynesi, crown pattern in flavigularis); greatly reduced white in tail. Compared to nominate it also has a stronger greenish back and yellow not white lower underparts. Compared to morphologically closest race (uluguru): (1) top of head and ear-coverts are grey vs brown and paler brown in uluguru; (2) lores concolorous with throat, whereas in uluguru concolorous with crown; (3) black chin to breast, extending below position of bar in uluguru; (4) more white in tail; and (5) sexual dimorphism.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Parker, V., Ryan, P. & Spottiswoode, C.|
This species has a small range which is threatened by commercial logging, the threat of which may be exacerbated by improvements to a road to the area. However, the species is apparently able to persist in small forest areas and in secondary forest, and so may be resilient to some degree to any such habitat degradation. The range is not yet severely fragmented or restricted to few locations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Near Threatened.
Apalis lynesi is known from the Namuli and Mabu massifs, Mozambique, where it was common on Mt Namuli (the main peak) in 1932 (Vincent 1933-1935). Mt Namuli was not surveyed again by ornithologists until 1998, when a one-week survey estimated this species's total population at more than 5,000 pairs, extrapolating from point-counts that found local densities in excess of 5 pairs/ha (Ryan et al. 1999, P. Ryan in litt. 2000). A more recent survey considered that this estimate appears excessive, and a density of around 5 pairs/10ha in continuous forest was considered a minimum, giving a population estimate of at least 600-700 pairs (Dowsett-Lemaire 2010). Longer-term, larger-scale population studies in Malawi have found much lower densities of the related A. thoracica (Dowsett-Lemaire 1983, F. Dowsett-Lemaire in litt. 1999). The population at Mount Mabu is considered to number perhaps a few dozen pairs (Dowsett-Lemaire 2010).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A one-week survey of Mt Namuli in 1998 estimated this species's total population at more than 5,000 pairs (P. Ryan in litt. 2000), or 10,000 mature individuals. Thus it is best placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits primary forest, woodland, remnant forest patches and secondary regrowth, principally along edge habitat and in the lower mid-stratum, occasionally in the canopy (V. Parker in litt. 1999). It moves in pairs or small family parties of 4-6, searching leaves, twigs, branches and tree-trunks, often descending to the ground and frequently fly-catching, feeding on small invertebrates and occasionally berries and seeds (Urban et al. 1997). It is territorial, building a domed nest of moss, sited one metre or more above ground (Urban et al. 1997). The only breeding record is from late November (Ryan et al. 1999) - A. thoracica breeds during October-March and this species is probably similar.|
|Major Threat(s):||Forests above 1,400 m on Mt Namuli are, at present, largely intact, but the slopes lower down have mostly been cleared for small-holder agriculture (Ryan et al. 1999). The ability of this species to persist in even small areas of forest and in secondary growth means that forest degradation is unlikely to threaten it in the immediate future. However, a road to the area, which could allow access for trucks and lead to commercial logging, is currently being improved (V. Parker in litt. 1999).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Mt Namuli is one of the most important sites for bird conservation in Mozambique, but no conservation measures are in place yet. If access to the area improves, it is a potential site for ecotourism-based conservation (Ryan et al. 1999). Conservation Actions Proposed
Establish and enforce formal protection from commercial logging for forest areas on Mt Namuli, including the more remote southern forest as a core wilderness area (Ryan et al. 1999). Assess the possibility of an ecotourism-based conservation programme involving local people for the Ukalini Forest area (Ryan et al. 1999). Conduct longer-term ecological studies on the species.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Apalis lynesi. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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