|Scientific Name:||Tryngites subruficollis|
|Species Authority:||(Vieillot, 1819)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Casañas, H., Harrington, B., Lanctot, R. & Russell, B.|
This species underwent rapid historical declines. Its moderately small remaining population continues to decline and as a result it is considered Near-Threatened.
|Range Description:||Tryngites subruficollis breeds sporadically along Arctic coasts from central Alaska, U.S.A., to Devon Island, Canada, with a relict population on Wrangel Island and west Chukotka, Russia. It has also been reported from St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) as a non-breeder. Birds winter in eastern South America including Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia after passing through the Greater and Lesser Antilles or around the Gulf coast of Central America. Originally numbering in the hundreds of thousands to millions (1890s-1900s), the species was brought to near extinction in the early 1920s by hunting. It has not recovered, with the current population estimated at 16,000-84,000 individuals based on various estimates from birds passing through the Rainwater Basin in Nebraska and the Gulf coastal plain in Louisiana and Texas (Morrison et al. 2006). It is difficult to monitor, as it is not faithful to breeding sites (and possibly not to wintering sites), but data from North American migration sites suggest that declines are continuing.|
Native:Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brazil; Canada; Colombia; Costa Rica; Curaçao; Ecuador; El Salvador; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Martinique; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico; Russian Federation; Saint Lucia; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; United States; Uruguay; Venezuela
Vagrant:Aruba; Australia; Austria; Bahamas; Belgium; Bulgaria; Cuba; Denmark; Egypt; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Hungary; Iceland; India; Ireland; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Malta; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of; Morocco; Namibia; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Papua New Guinea; Poland; Portugal; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.16,000-84,000 individuals (Morrison et al. 2006).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It breeds in the high Arctic on well drained tundra with tussocks and scant vegetation. It is generally not found near the sea and avoids marshes. It appears to depend heavily upon intensive grazing by livestock in its wintering grounds to create short grassland (Lanctot et al. 2002), but also uses flooded pampas grasslands. During migration it is found on many short grass habitats. At the internationally important Rainwater Basin stopover site in Nebraska, U.S.A., it was observed to feed primarily in agricultural grassland, and use wetlands for resting (McCarty et al. 2009). It is a lekking species.|
It was severely overhunted in the early part of the 1900s, reportedly declining to near extinction from a population which may have numbered in the millions. Immediate threats are the matter of some conjecture. The breeding grounds may be affected by habitat loss and degradation, and environmental contaminants (R. Lanctot in litt. 2003). Previously, on-going declines were attributed to widespread and continuing destruction of grasslands in the wintering range (Lanctot and Laredo 1994, Lanctot 1995), but there seems little evidence to support this, although environmental contaminants may be playing a part there (R. Lanctot in litt. 2003). Exposure on migration to toxic chemicals and pollutants in its agricultural feeding grounds may pose a threat, and is being investigated further (Lanctot 2006, McCarty et al. 2009).
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix I and II. A symposium was held in 2005-2006 to identify priority actions for the conservation of the species. Conservation Actions Proposed
Implement priority actions identified at the Buff-breasted Sandpiper symposium. Ascertain the population size and trend for the species. Complete a species action plan. Conserve key staging and wintering grasslands. Investigate the quality of foraging habitat and the influence of contaminants at the agricultural feeding grounds used on migration (McCarty et al. 2009).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Tryngites subruficollis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 May 2013.|
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