|Scientific Name:||Gallinago nemoricola|
|Species Authority:||Hodgson, 1836|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Baral, H., Dorji, K., Fjeldså, J., Inskipp, C. & Kristin, A.|
This secretive snipe is estimated to have a small, declining population, as a result of the widespread loss of wetlands habitats in its breeding and wintering grounds. It may only occur in a single population and has precautionarily been treated as such here, therefore it qualifies as Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||Gallinago nemoricola breeds locally in the Himalayas of north-west and north-east India, Nepal, Bhutan and south-east Tibet, central Sichaun and perhaps Yunnan, China (BirdLife International 2001), as further suggested by a recent record from Pudacuo National Park (J. Fjeldså and A. Krištín in litt. 2011). In winter, it occurs at lower altitudes in the Himalayas, as a regular visitor in small numbers to northern Vietnam, and as a vagrant (or perhaps irregular visitor) to the hills of central and southern India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, north Thailand and Laos. Historically, it was considered rare and local across much of its range. It appears to have declined in traditional wintering areas in parts of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, from where there have been few recent records. Its population in Nepal is estimated at fewer than 350 individuals (C. Inskipp and H. Baral in litt. 2012), and its global population is estimated to include fewer than 10,000 mature individuals. The species is likely to be under-recorded in Nepal, as few birdwatchers visit its breeding areas at the right time of year (C. Inskipp and H. Baral in litt. 2012).|
Native:Bhutan; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Nepal; Viet Nam
Vagrant:Bangladesh; Myanmar; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, from analysis of a detailed account of recent records in BirdLife International (2001). This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals. Further documentation is desirable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It breeds from April through to June, in alpine meadows and marshes with scattered low bushes, or in dwarf scrub in barren, boulder-strewn areas, generally between 3,000 and 5,000 m, and at least occasionally down to 2,100 m, with one historical breeding record from 1,200 m. In winter, it frequents swampy ground in and at the edge of evergreen forest and marshy grassland and scrub, below 3,000 m, sometimes down to lowland plains (below 100 m). Populations are partially migratory, with some birds travelling from the Himalayas to south India.|
During the early 20th century, hunting was probably a major cause of decline. It remains a local threat, particularly in China and South-East Asia. Habitat loss is now the key threat, with substantial losses and degradation of evergreen forest, wooded wetlands, marshes and swamps in its wintering areas as a result of drainage, clearance for tea plantations, and conversion to both commercial and shifting agriculture. In Nepal at least, the species is threatened by high grazing pressure from livestock in its breeding habitats of subalpine shrubland and grasslands between May and September, causing habitat degradation, disturbance and probably the trampling of nests (C. Inskipp and H. Baral in litt. 2012). A high volume of tourist traffic to Langtang National Park is considered a threat to the species owing to the resultant habitat degradation and disturbance, but this is unlikely to be a concern in more remote protected areas in Nepal, at least for the foreseeable future (C. Inskipp and H. Baral in litt. 2012).
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. It has been recorded in numerous protected areas, but many are remote and lack sufficient resources to provide adequate protection. Amongst the most important are Wolong Biosphere Reserve (China), Langtang, Shey-Phoksundo and Sagarmatha National Parks (Nepal) and Hoang Lien Nature Reserve (Vietnam). A survey for the species was carried out in Langtang National Park (Nepal) in March-June 2007 (C. Inskipp and H. Baral in litt. 2012).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct extensive surveys throughout its breeding and wintering ranges to establish its current distribution, status, seasonal movements and major threats. Identify key sites and campaign for their protection where appropriate. Research its ecological and habitat requirements, particularly its tolerance of habitat degradation in wintering areas. Promote conservation awareness campaigns to reduce hunting in and around protected areas known to support populations.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Gallinago nemoricola. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2013.|
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