|Scientific Name:||Grus monacha|
|Species Authority:||Temminck, 1835|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C1+2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Barter, M., Chan, S., Harris, J., Li, Z., Morris, P., Smirenski, S. & Yasuhiro, Y.|
This crane has a small population, restricted to fewer than ten wintering sites whose combined area is small. It has declined at the majority of these wintering sites. Given the substantial threats to its habitat, it is likely to continue declining in the near future. Owing to these factors it is listed as Vulnerable.
Grus monacha breeds in south-central and south-eastern Siberia, Russia (BirdLife International 2001). Breeding is suspected in Mongolia and two breeding sites have recently been found in the region of Heilongjiang, China (Yuming et al. 2006, Guo Yu-min et al. 2007). Its global population is estimated to be c.11,500 birds (J. Harris in litt. 2006). The majority of the population winter in Japan, with smaller numbers in China and South Korea. Over 80% of the population winter at Izumi, southern Japan, where 10,468 were recorded in 2009 (S. Chan in litt. 2012). A second Japanese wintering population at Yashiro (western Honshu) has declined considerably since the 1940s. There were 355 birds in 1940, down to 100-200 in the 1950s-1960s, 50-100 in the 1980s, 20-50 in early 1990s and about 20 birds in late 1990s. The current wintering population is currently lower than 10 birds (only 7 birds in 2012) (S. Chan in litt. 2012). An estimated 1,050-1,150 birds winter in China, including between 300-400 at Poyang, over 600 at Shengjin and Caizi and over 100 at Chongming (J. Harris in litt. 2012). Around 114 winter in South Korea (Li and Mundkur 2004), mainly at Suncheon Bay. A total of 1,088 individuals were counted at the Yangtze floodplain in 2005 (M. Barter in litt. 2006).
Native:China; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Mongolia; Russian Federation; Russian Federation
Vagrant:Kazakhstan; Taiwan, Province of China
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population was estimated at c.6,900 mature individuals (J. Harris in litt. 2006), but is now estimated to be c.11,600 individuals based on winter estimates of 1,050-1,150 individuals in China (J. Harris in litt. 2012); c.10,500 individuals in Japan (S. Chan in litt. 2012) and c.114 individuals in Korea (Li and Mundkur 2004). The population is thus best placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It breeds in remote, wooded, upland bogs on gently sloping foothills and flat river terraces, mostly within the permafrost zone. It winters in freshwater marshes, wet grassland, coastal tidal flats and farmland.|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
The key threats are wetland loss and degradation in its wintering grounds in China and South Korea, as a result of reclamation for development and dam building, especially the Three Gorges Dam and a proposed dam at the outlet to Poyang Lake which threatens an important wintering site. Conversion of rice-paddies to cotton fields at Longgan Hu and Dongting Hu has caused declines. A newly discovered wintering site at Suncheon Bay, South Korea, is threatened by development. The artificially high concentration of birds at Izumi, as a result of supplementary feeding, risks a major population reduction from disease or another catastrophe. Other threats in China include pollution of coastal waters, invasive cordgrass Spartina alterniflora in tidal areas, pesticide poisoning, increased levels of human disturbance and over-fishing. Some poaching and hunting of breeding birds occurs.
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. CMS Appendix II. Key protected areas include Norsky, Daursky and Khingansky (Russia), Daguur and Ugtam (Mongolia), Shengjin Hu, Longgan Hu, parts of Poyang Hu, Dong Dongting Hu and Chen Hu (China), Mundok (North Korea), Suncheon Bay (South Korea ) and Izumi-Takaono and Yashiro (Japan). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys to identify additional breeding areas. Establish strictly protected areas in the Bikin river basin (Russia) and Suncheon Bay (South Korea). Expand the area or number of suitable wintering sites in Japan. Expand protected areas at Chongming Dao and Xinglong Dongsha (China). Enforce measures to minimise threats to wetlands in the lower Yangtze due to hydrological changes caused by the Three Gorges Dam. If the proposed outlet dam is constructed at Poyang Lake, operation of the dam should attempt to restore the natural hydrology; careful monitoring of cranes and their habitats will be needed and active mitigation measures implemented to ensure availability of foraging habitat (J. Harris in litt. 2012). Prevent poisoning from pesticides and poaching. Establish local crane conservation groups in China.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Grus monacha. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2013.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|