|Scientific Name:||Metallura baroni|
|Species Authority:||Salvin, 1893|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Krabbe, N., Tinoco, B. & Züchner, T.|
This species has a very small range with records from very few locations. Remaining habitat is fragmented and declining. It consequently qualifies as Endangered.
|Range Description:||Metallura baroni occurs in the Western Cordillera of the Andes in Azuay and Cañar provinces, south Ecuador, from the Cañar river south to the Jubones river. Although it has been recorded on both slopes of the inter-Andean plateau west of Cuenca, there appear to be only three records from the Eastern Cordillera, and it should be considered irregular there (Tinoco et al. 2009). Its population was estimated at over 2,000 in 1992, when it was considered to be declining. Conservation measures have been implemented within one key area, Río Mazán, where the population was thought to be stable, at 50-100 birds, in 1986.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population is placed in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals. This equates to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is confined to Polylepis woodland, shrubby páramo and the upper edge of montane forest at 3,100-4,000 m (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Tinoco et al. 2009). These habitats are usually intermixed with open páramo and severely disturbed areas which have been converted to livestock pasture or pine plantation , where the species is not found (Tinoco et al. 2009). Its main nectar resources are Brachyotum spp. (Melastomataceae), Berberis spp. (Berberidaceae), and Barnadesia arborea (Asteraceae), but Draba sp. (Brassicaceae), Gentianella sp. (Gentianaceae), Ribes lehmannii (Grossulariaceae), Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae) and Saracha quitensis (Solanaceae) are also visited (Tinoco et al. 2009). Nectar is supplemented with arthropods taken in flight or from plant substrates (Tinoco et al. 2009). It prefers to forage within a couple of metres of the ground. Courtship displays were observed in June and July (Tinoco et al. 2009). A nest with one egg was found in April (T. Zuchner in litt. 1999).|
|Major Threat(s):||Timberline habitats in the Andes have been diminishing since the arrival of humans thousands of years ago, primarily through the use of fire (Kessler and Herzog 1998). Sustainable land-use systems established by Pre-Columbian cultures were largely replaced by unsustainable agricultural techniques, including widespread burning of high-Andean habitats, during the colonial period (Kessler and Herzog 1998). Regular burning of páramo grassland, adjacent to elfin forest, to promote growth of fresh shoots for livestock, has lowered the treeline by several hundred metres, and destroyed large areas of this species' habitat, and is ongoing (Kessler and Herzog 1998). For the same reasons, Polylepis forest is one of the most threatened habitats in South America, having been reduced to isolated fragments within its historical range throughout the Andes (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). Other threats include firewood-gathering, road construction and potato cultivation (Stattersfield et al. 1998, Tinoco et al. 2009).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs in two protected areas, Las Cajas National Park and the Río Mazán reserve (N. Krabbe in litt. 1999, Tinoco et al. 2009). Conservation Actions Proposed
Research its ecology, particularly breeding and movements (B. Tinoco in litt. 2012). Assess the status of known populations and connectivity amongst them (B. Tinoco in litt. 2012). Ensure effective protection of habitat in Las Cajas National Park (T. Zuchner in litt. 1999). Improve land-use management by segregating agricultural, grazing and forest areas (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996, Tinoco et al. 2009). Regulate the use of fire (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). Reintroduce old, high-yield agricultural techniques (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996, Tinoco et al. 2009). Educate and encourage local people to take the lead in land-use management and restoration schemes (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Metallura baroni. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 May 2013.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|