|Scientific Name:||Hylonympha macrocerca|
|Species Authority:||Gould, 1873|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(ii,iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Ascanio, D., Pérez-Emán, J., Rodríguez, J., Rojas-Suárez, F. & Sharpe, C J|
This species is listed as Endangered because even though it appears to tolerate some habitat degradation, habitat loss and ongoing conversion of forest to agriculture are likely to be causing its already very small range to decline in extent and quality.
|Range Description:||Hylonympha macrocerca is endemic to the Paria Peninsula in Sucre, north-east Venezuela, with records from cerros Humo, Patao, El Olvido and Azul. The only post-1980 records are from cerros Humo and El Olvido, but the extent of remaining habitat on cerros Patao and Azul indicates that the species is still present. It remains locally common or even abundant. In 1988, 4-8 birds per hectare were estimated on Cerro El Olvido, suggesting a population of c.1,000 individuals east of Cerro Patao (Bond et al. 1989). In 1993, 1.9 birds per hectare were estimated on Cerro Humo (Evans et al. 1994a), where there are c.15 km2 of intact habitat and additional areas of second growth.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits lower and upper montane humid forest, where it has been recorded at 800-1,200 m on Cerro Humo, and 530-920 m further east. In primary forest, it feeds mainly at bromeliad flowers and on their insect inhabitants, whereas in secondary forest, feeding is associated with the shrubs Heliconia aurea and Costus sp (Bond et al. 1989). Although it is regularly seen feeding on Heliconia in open areas it may nevertheless be dependent on the availability of pristine forest nearby (Bond et al. 1989). It also hawks insects from exposed perches. There may be seasonal movements (C. J. Sharpe, J-P. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999).|
Increases in cash-crop agriculture, especially the cultivation of "ocumo blanco" (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and "ocumo chino" (Colocasia esculenta), since the mid- to late 1980s have resulted in some uncontrolled burning and forest degradation. Cerros Humo and Patao have been worst affected, with the east of the peninsula fairly undisturbed. Since it is an understorey inhabitant, removal of understory vegetation for coffee and cacao cultivation is likely to lead to reduced population density (C. Sharpe in litt. 2007, D. Ascanio in litt. 2007). It is considered nationally Endangered in Venezuela (Sharpe 2008), and has been recognised as a "high priority" species, amongst the top dozen priorities for bird conservation in Venezuela (Rodríguez et al. 2004, Sharpe 2008).
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Its entire range is formally protected by the Paria Peninsula National Park (375 km2), but this has not entirely halted habitat degradation. In fact, this national park has always been chronically underfunded, even though it has been the target of some (admittedly rather ineffectual) international protected area strengthening programmes (Sharpe in litt. 2011). It still has no management plan, has insufficient budget, too few staff (three park guards), and inadequate means transport and communications (Sharpe in litt. 2011). The species is used as a symbol of conservation in villages adjacent to the park (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995). Conservation Actions Proposed
Improve the protection and management of the national park (Sharpe 2008, Sharpe in litt. 2011). Census populations on cerros Humo, Patao, El Olvido and Azul (Sharpe 2008). Study its ecological requirements (C. J. Sharpe, J-P. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999). Initiate programmes to develop economic alternatives to reduce agricultural encroachment in villages adjacent to the national park (Sharpe 2008, Sharpe in litt. 2011).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Hylonympha macrocerca. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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