|Scientific Name:||Ognorhynchus icterotis|
|Species Authority:||(Massena & Souancé, 1854)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered D ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Jahn, O. & Salaman, P.|
This species is classified as Endangered as the known population of mature individuals is extremely small, however intensive conservation action has stabilised its current range and resulted in an increase in the number of mature individuals, and should the number of mature individuals continue to increase the species may be downlisted again in the future.
|Range Description:||Ognorhynchus icterotis formerly occurred in all three Andean ranges of Colombia, from Norte de Santander and Antioquia to Nariño and in north-west Ecuador, south to Cotopaxi. It persists in the Central Andes of Colombia (Krabbe 1998, López-Lanús et al. 1998, Salaman et al. 1999a), although its whereabouts for much of the year are unknown (Krabbe and Sornoza 1996, Salaman et al. 1999a). Once common to abundant, it is now potentially extinct in Ecuador: although there have been unconfirmed reports of flocks of c.20 individuals in the Intag valley since 2000 (O. Jahn in litt. 2007), searches in 2008 in the last confirmed strongholds in Imbabura and Carchi failed to find the species (Anon. 2010). When re-discovered in Colombia in 1999 there were only estimated to be 81 birds, but intensive conservation actions have since seen the population dramatically recover. In 2004 the population reached a peak of 660 individuals (Salaman et al. 2006), although the population declined in 2005 and 2006 to 554 birds, thought to be caused by individuals leaving to establish satellite populations which subsequently failed to establish. However, the population has continued to increase since, and in 2009 was recorded at over 1,000 individuals, with three separate breeding populations on the slopes of the Western, Central and Eastern Cordillera. Although breeding success is good, the species's breeding requirements and highly fragmented habitat will continue to challenge its recovery (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2010).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The current population is thought to comprise 1,103 individuals. However, a maximum of only 212 individuals have bred in recent years (Fundacion ProAves in litt. 2010), hence this figure is used for the current population of mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits humid montane forest, elfin forest and partially cleared terrain at 1,200-3,400 m, favouring areas dominated by wax palms Ceroxylon quindiuense, in which it roosts, nests and feeds (Juniper and Parr 1998, Krabbe 1998, Salaman et al. 1999a, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Although currently resident at one site (López-Lanús et al. 1998, Salaman et al. 1999b), other flocks wander seasonally in search of food (bark, buds and fruiting/seeding blooms of Ceroxylon, Citharexylon, Podocarpus and Sapium spp., as well as a variety of fern species) (Krabbe 1998, Salaman et al. 1999b, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Arosa et al. 2009). Two breeding cycles in April-November were noted at one colony (Juniper and Parr 1998, Salaman et al. 1999b). Breeding pairs enlist the help of 'brood-helpers' during the chick-rearing stage (Salaman 2001). Its ecology is discussed in further detail by Salaman et al. (2006).|
|Major Threat(s):||Its range appears to be heavily restricted by the spread of exotic forest, and occurs only in native forest (Ceia et al. 2009). It has suffered considerable habitat loss and fragmentation (90-93% of montane forest in Colombia) throughout its range (Salaman et al. 1999b, Snyder et al. 2000); however several sizeable areas of habitat remain within its historic range, suggesting additional causes of decline (Krabbe 1998, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Wax palm mortality is accelerating and they suffer poor recruitment because cattle browse young trees, and logging in adjacent areas increases their susceptibility to disease (Krabbe 1998, Salaman et al. 1999a, Salaman et al. 1999b, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Wax palms are incredibly long-lived and slow-growing (mature individuals are over 500 years old) (Salaman 2001), and are being unsustainably exploited for use in Palm Sunday celebrations within the species's range. In Ecuador, hunting for food was prolific (Krabbe and Sornoza 1996, Salaman et al. 1999b), and trapping has had some impact in Colombia, although the species is notoriously hard to keep in captivity (Salaman et al. 1999b, Salaman 2001).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. The traditional roost-site in Ecuador has recently been purchased and is being reforested (Snyder et al. 2000). Surveys took place early 2008 in Ecuador to determine the species's status there (O. Jahn in litt. 2007). It is hoped that an awareness campaign for people living nearby has stopped hunting of parrots for food (Krabbe 1998). In Colombia, awareness raising to reduce hunting pressure and the impact of Palm Sunday processions has involved poster campaigns, environmental education, community workshops, school visits and radio (Waugh 2004). Combined with on the ground actions such as surveys, fencing of breeding sites to allow wax palm regeneration, habitat restoration and provision of artificial nest boxes (Salaman 2001), the species's population size has increased significantly (Waugh 2004, Fundación ProAves in litt. 2010). In 2009, ProAves, the Loro Parque Fundación, the American Bird Conservancy and others established a corridor of over 16,000 acres (including the acquisition of over 10,000 acres) for Ognorhynchus and other threatened parrots across the Central Cordillera in Colombia (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2010). More information on conservation initiatives is provided by Salaman et al. (2006). Conservation Actions Proposed
Search for additional subpopulations, with a focus on determining status within the Intag valley, Ecuador (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000). Prepare habitat maps of the Volcán Ruiz-Tolima massif (Salaman et al. 1999b). Buy and protect further habitat (Salaman et al. 1999b, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000). Continue the current highly successful programme of conservation activities in Colombia and extend these to any sub-population identified within Ecuador in the future.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Ognorhynchus icterotis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2013.|
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