Himatione fraithii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Fringillidae

Scientific Name: Himatione fraithii (Rothschild, 1892)
Common Name(s):
English Laysan Honeycreeper
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): VanderWerf, E.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Martin, R
This Laysan endemic honeycreeper became Extinct in 1923 due to the almost complete destruction of vegetation cover on the island following the introduction of rabbits as a food supply for guano miners in the 1890s.The final act was a violent storm, in which what were considered the final three individuals were killed.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Himatione fraithii was endemic to Laysan, in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, United States, but became extinct in 1923 (E. VanderWerf in litt. 2011).
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:First observed in 1891, Rothschild (1893-1900) described the species as much the rarest of the birds of Laysan. Subsequently the situation deteriorated, and the last 3 known Laysan Honeycreeper individuals died in 1923 (Olson 1996).
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:UnknownContinuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Rothschild (1893-1900, in Fancy and Ralph 1997) stated that the species was "by far the rarest of the Laysan Island birds, though I have observed a fair number, generally in pairs. They are very active in their movements, flitting about in the scrub. It feeds on very small insects as a rule, but I have also observed it sucking honey from the flowers."
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):5.6
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The introduction of rabbits as a food supply for the guano miners that worked the Laysan Islands at the turn of the 20th Century was disastrous for the species. Virtually all vegetative cover on the island was eliminated, and the final three individuals were apparently killed in a vicious storm in 1923, with no shelter remaining on the island (Olson 1996, Fancy and Ralph 1997).

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Map updated.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Himatione fraithii (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T103829706A119553201. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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