Callaeas cinereus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Callaeidae

Scientific Name: Callaeas cinereus (Gmelin, 1788)
Common Name(s):
English South Island Kokako
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) C2a(i); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Flux, I. & Innes, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Khwaja, N., McClellan, R., Taylor, J., Temple, H., Westrip, J. & Stringer, C.
This species was last seen in 2007, and is considered by some to be extinct. If it is still extant, it is thought to have an extremely small population, which may be declining as a result of invasive predators. Therefore, it is listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

Date last seen: 2007
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to South Island, New Zealand. The last confirmed sightings of the species were in 2007 (Miskelly et al. 2013), and before that in 1967 (Clout and Hay 1981); it is now considered extinct, with recent reports not deemed to be credible (Bain 2009). 

Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
New Zealand
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:6300
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The last sighting of this species was in 2007, and it has been considered extinct. If the species persists it is likely to have a very small population size (<50 mature individuals).

Trend Justification:  Given the ongoing threat from introduced predators a continuing decline is inferred.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1-49Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species is assumed to have a similar ecology to the formerly conspecific C. wilsoni which prefers lowland, tall podocarp/hardwood forests with a high diversity of plant species, and is rarely found in modified forests, including selectively logged forests (Heather and Robertson 1997).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):13.5
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The historical decline was due to large-scale habitat destruction, fragmentation and the introduction of predators and competitors. Predation of eggs and chicks by black rats Rattus rattus and brush-tailed possums Trichosurus vulpecula is the main cause of nest failure, whereas deaths to nesting adult females were caused by stoats Mustela erminea (Flux et al. 2006). These introduced predators are currently the primary threat to the species. Trichosurus vulpecula also competes for many preferred food items, and introduced goats and deer destroy favoured understorey food-plants (Innes et al. 1999). Historical forest destruction for logging has also been important, especially as the species is thought to require fairly large tracts of forest. These two threats were largely contemporaneous and so their relative importance is not completely clear (Rasch 1991).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Most of the remaining habitat is protected and almost all key subpopulations are managed for the control of R. rattus and T. vulpecula. Recent research shows that "pulsing" poison bait delivery (at least three managed years every 10) may be the most effective way of dealing with the predator threat (Bassé et al. 2003). Efforts are continuing to be made to locate individuals of this species (see, e.g. Evans 2016), and sightings continue to be claimed (e.g. Redmond 2016).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue surveys to see whether this species is still extant.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Map updated.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Callaeas cinereus (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T103730380A119550786. . Downloaded on 22 July 2018.
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