Cneorum tricoccon 

Scope: Global & Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Sapindales Rutaceae

Scientific Name: Cneorum tricoccon L.
Common Name(s):
English Spurge olive
Taxonomic Source(s): The International Plant Names Index. 2012. IPNI. Available at: (Accessed: 17 June).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-14
Assessor(s): Buira, A. & García Murillo, P.G.
Reviewer(s): Fraga i Arquimbau, P., Beech, E. & Allen, D.J.
Contributor(s): Peruzzi, L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): García, M.
This species is found in the western Mediterranean region, with isolated populations along the Mediterranean coasts of Spain and France, the Balearic Islands), southern France, peninsular Italy and southwestern Sardinia. In the Balearic Islands, the species is now almost extinct on Menorca, and the species has undergone declines in several parts of its range as a result of habitat impacts and the loss of seed-dispersers. The species is assessed as Vulnerable as it has a small AOO of 892 km2, the population is severely fragmented and there is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and in the area and quality.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is present in the Iberian Peninsula (including the Balearic Islands), southern France, and Italy (southwestern Sardinia and in the west coast of the peninsula; southern Tuscany (Argentario) and on the adjacent island of Giannutri in the Tuscan Archipelago) (Lázaro-Nogal et al. 2013, L. Peruzzi pers. comm. 2017). In the Balearic Islands, the species is now almost extinct on Menorca, with only one small population currently known (Rotllan-Puig and Traveset 2016).
Countries occurrence:
France (France (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna); Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland))
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:892Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:544670
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species is rare in mainland Spain, although it can be abundant on some of the Balearic Islands and in France. The species is declining in some parts of its range (Menorca, Malaga), and the overall population trend seems to be declining (Rotllan-Puig and Traveset 2016). As more than 50% of the population is isolated, there is no exchange between them and the dispersion agents are declining, the population is considered to be severely fragmented.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is a small evergreen shrub and a phototoxic species. The species is found in garrigues, Mediterranean maquis and pine forests in littoral areas normally in calcareous soils. Seed from this plant are eaten and dispersed by lizards; on the Balearic Islands, these are Podarcis lilfordi Günther in the Gymnesic Islands (Mallorca, Menorca, Cabrera and surrounding islets), and Podarcis pityusensis Boscá in the Pythiusic Islands (Eivissa, Formentera and surrounding islets). Populations of these lizards have been impacted by predation by introduced mammals (Traveset et al. 2012).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Material under this name occurs in the more specialist ornamental plant trade. Traditional medicinal uses are ascribed to it, as well as use, presumably at a subsistence scale, as a fuel as for tannin (PFAF 2017).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is affected by touristic infrastructure and the loss of the dispersal agents as a result of predation by introduced mammals.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is found in protected areas. It is listed in Andalucia as species of special protection, Decree 23/2012; in Catalonia as Vulnerable (Resolution of 732/2015), in Valencia as non-catalogued protected taxon as Extinct (Decree 70/2009). It is listed in the Red List of Andalucia as Endangered (Cabezudo et al. 2005), in Catalonia as Near Threatened (Sáez et al. 2010), and in Valencia as Extinct in the Wild (Laguna et al. 1998).

Citation: Buira, A. & García Murillo, P.G. 2017. Cneorum tricoccon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T103587155A103587159. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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