|Scientific Name:||Hipposideros turpis|
|Species Authority:||Bangs, 1901|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Based on cranial morphology and genetics, the Japan populations may represent a distinct species. Borissenko and Kruskop (2003) hypothesized that the Viet Namese and Thai populations (H. t. pendleburyi) represent a distinct species from turpis which was named from Japan.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Csorba, G., Bates, P. & Furey, N.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority), Chanson, J. & Chiozza, F. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Near Threatened because its extent of occurrence is not much greater than 20,000 km², its range is severely fragmented, it is dependent on a very specific habitat (karst areas), and there is ongoing decline in the quality of its habitat mainly due to disturbance of its roosting caves by tourism as well as deforestation of the surrounding foraging areas. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion B1.
|Range Description:||This species has a very disjunct distribution, with one subspecies (H. t. turpis) on the Yaeyama (Sakishima) Islands of Japan, including Iriomote, Ishigaki, Yonaguni, and Hateruma (Abe et al. 2005) and is not likely to occur more widely, and the other subspecies (H. t. pendleburyi) in southern Thailand and Viet Nam. The systematic status of the two subspecies remains unclear in view of its unusual distribution. Surveys have not found the species in areas between known locations.|
Native:Japan (Nansei-shoto); Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
In Japan, there are at least five colonies on Iriomote Island, with at least half of the total estimated population in a single colony that occurs on private land; on Yonaguni, there are no more than 1,000 individuals; on Ishigake, there are around 10 colonies, estimated at around 10,000 bats; and on Hateruma, there is no record of population size (this population is very distinct from other populations).
A study will be undertaken by Thong in Viet Nam. The population is locally common in Cuc Phuong and Cat Ba island National Parks in Viet Nam (N. Furey pers. comm.). Populations in Thailand are scattered (S. Bumrungri pers. comm.).
|Habitat and Ecology:||During the day this species is found roosting in caves, often in large colonies of up to 1,000 individuals (Abe et al. 2005), and at night it forages in the surrounding woodland. The larger H. armiger feeds on large insects such as beetles (especially scarabeids), but smaller sympatric species take softer prey such as crickets, moths, Diptera, flying termites and Hymenoptera (Hutson et al. 2001). Four of the five known localities in central and northern Viet Nam are at karst sites and in protected areas (N. Furey pers. comm.), and it also occurs in karst areas in Thailand (S. Bumrungsri pers. comm.). The species uses disturbed forest, and it may persist in fragments of suitable habitat.|
In general, human disturbance at roosting sites is the main threat. In Japan on the island of Iriomote the main breeding colonies are concentrated in two caves; most caves are subject to the risk of disturbance. The areas surrounding these caves are National Forest, but there has been pressure to develop the areas around the caves which would involve forest clearance. A nursing colony of 1,000 individuals in the western part of Iriomote Island has been disturbed by tourists since 2005. Development for agriculture and logging would remove key foraging areas and result in potential isolation of the cave roosts, causing declines of these principal populations. Similar declines and even extinctions have already been observed in other nearby islands. There has been similar pressure on Ishigaki to build an airport and holiday resort. Publicity about the plight of these bats resulted in increased public interest, including increased tourism to the breeding caves.
The species is affected by deforestation in Thailand (S. Bumrungsri pers. comm.), and in Viet Nam there is ongoing decline in the quality of habitat through disturbance from tourism and habitat destruction (N. Furey pers. comm.). In Cat Ba in Viet Nam, tourism disturbance is heavy (N. Furey pers. comm.). In Thailand areas around protected areas are deforested and the areas themselves are degraded.
In Japan the areas around some sites are national forests. There has been pressure to protect important roost sites and associated habitat. Fences were erected at the cave entrances to control tourists, and a small area originally designated for development was proposed as a reserve (Hutson et al. 2001). It is listed as Endangered (EN) in the Japanese Red List (2007).
In Viet Nam three of the five known sites are protected and a new site is proposed (N. Furey pers. comm.).
|Citation:||Csorba, G., Bates, P. & Furey, N. 2008. Hipposideros turpis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2015.|
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