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Hipposideros ater

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CHIROPTERA HIPPOSIDERIDAE

Scientific Name: Hipposideros ater
Species Authority: Templeton, 1848
Common Name/s:
English Dusky Leaf-nosed Bat, Bi-coloured Leaf-nosed Bat, Dusky Roundleaf Bat
Synonym/s:
Hipposideros atratus Kelaart, 1850
Hipposideros bicolor Templeton, 1848 subspecies ater
Hipposideros bicolor Miller, 1902 subspecies nicobarulae
Hipposideros nicobarulae Miller, 1902
Hipposideros wrighti (Taylor, 1934)
Taxonomic Notes: This species belongs to the bicolor species group. Earlier listed under Hipposideros bicolor (Temminck, 1834) (Ellerman and Morrison-Scott 1951), now a distinct species (Hill 1963, Corbet and Hill 1992, Koopman 1993, Bates and Harrison 1997, Simons 2005) (Srinivasulu et al. in press). Hill (1963) included Hipposideros wrighti (Taylor, 1934) as a synonym of this species. Includes all specimens from Palawan formerly identified as Hipposideros bicolor (Esselstyn et al. 2004). There is a need for studies of geographic variation across the species' range (L. Heaney and K. Helgen pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Csorba, G., Bumrungsri, S., Francis, C., Helgen, Bates, P., Gumal, M., Heaney, L., Balete, D., Esselstyn, J., McKenzie, N. & Bonaccorso, F.
Reviewer/s: Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
This species is listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution, tolerance of a range of habitats, presumed large population, probable occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
History:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This very widespread species ranges from India, through much of Southeast Asia, to the islands of New Guinea and Australia. In South Asia this species is very widely distributed. It is presently known from India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nicobar Islands, Orissa and Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka (Eastern, North Central, Southern and Western provinces) (Molur et al. 2002, Aul and Vijaykumar 2003, Srinivasulu and Srinivasulu 2006). In Southeast Asia it is distributed from Myanmar, into Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, and from here ranges to Sumatra (Indonesia), northern parts of Borneo (Brunei [possibly], Indonesia and Malaysia), the Philippines (found throughout with records from Balabac [Hill, 1963], Bohol, Catanduanes, Cebu, Leyte, Luzon [Abra, Benguet (Taylor, 1934), Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal, Tarlac provinces], Marinduque [Lawrence, 1939], Maripipi, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan [Heaney et al. 1998].), Sulawesi (Indonesia), the Moluccan Islands (Indonesia), the Aru Islands (Indonesia), the islands of Biak-Supiori and Yapen (Indonesia), New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), the islands of New Britain and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), the Louisade Archipelago (Papua New Guinea). It has been recorded from northern and central parts of Australia. It has been recorded up to 1,700 m asl in (New Guinea).
Countries:
Native:
Australia; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Sri Lanka; Thailand
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is common in its range in South Asia and has been recorded in small colonies of few individuals. Although there are no long-term studies on this species, informal observations reveal that the populations are stable in many localities (C. Srinivasulu pers. comm.). In the Philippines, the species has not been found to be common (Heaney and Balete pers. comm.). It is widespread, but never especially common in the remainder of Southeast Asia (Bates pers. comm.). In Australia, it appears to be a generally uncommon species.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: In South Asia, this species roosts in small colonies in lofts of old thatched houses, old disused buildings, disused areas of buildings, mines, tunnels, culverts, wells, hollows of large trees in forested areas, large crevices in walls, caves on sea shores. It is a late flyer with a low, fast and fluttering flight and feeds on small sized coleopterans and mosquitoes. A single young is born after a gestation period of 150-160 days (Bates and Harrison 1997). In Southeast Asia, the species has been recorded from lowland and montane primary and secondary forest, over or associated with limestone (L. Heaney and Balete pers. comm.), where it usually roosts in caves (L. Heaney et al. 1991; Rickart et al. 1993; Esselstyn and L. Heaney pers. comm. 2006) although there is a record from a human-constructed tunnel in lowland secondary forest (Sedlock, 2001). The species is only very rarely found in agricultural areas near to forest (L. Heaney pers. comm.). In New Guinea and Australia, it forages in a wide variety of habitats including rainforest, dry woodland, mangroves, dry scrub, euclypt woodland and secondary growth. It roosts in caves and abandoned tunnels. Animals largely roost in small groups but can sometimes be found in groups of several hundred individuals (Flannery 1995; Strahan 1995; Bonaccorso 1998). The female gives birth to a single young.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Overall there appear to be no major threats to this widespread species as a whole. In South Asia and Australia the species is locally threatened by the disturbance of maternity caves. In the Philippines, the species has probably declined as a result of destruction of lowland forest and disturbance of caves (Heaney et al. 1998). In the Philippines, as with other cave dwelling bats, there is likely to be some localized hunting for food (Heaney and Balete pers. comm.), however, it is unlikely to be taken for food throughout most of its southeast Asian range (Francis pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In view of the species wide range, it seems probable that it is present in a number of protected areas. There is a need to identify and protect important roosting sites for this species. In South Asia, additional studies into the threats to this species are needed.
Citation: Csorba, G., Bumrungsri, S., Francis, C., Helgen, Bates, P., Gumal, M., Heaney, L., Balete, D., Esselstyn, J., McKenzie, N. & Bonaccorso, F. 2008. Hipposideros ater. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.
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