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IUCN Red List of Bangladesh 2015 reports 31 Regionally Extinct and 390 Threatened Animal Species

15 July 2016
Photo: IUCN

In 2000, IUCN Bangladesh first published the Red List of Threatened Animals of Bangladesh. Fifteen years later, the list has been updated including two invertebrate groups: Crustaceans and Butterflies. A total of 1619 animal species belonging to seven groups – mammals (138), birds (566), reptiles (167), amphibians (49), freshwater fishes (253), crustaceans (141), and butterflies (305) – have been assessed over the last 30 months. The updated Red List has recently been unveiled at an event in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

During the assessment process, 160 assessors in Bangladesh assessed 1619 species and categorized 390 threatened species: 56 are Critically Endangered (CR), 181 are Endangered (EN), 153 are Vulnerable (VU) and sadly, 31 species have been classified as Regionally Extinct (RE). The assessment also listed 278 species as ‘Data Deficient’, which indicates an inadequacy of available information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment on these species.

The Red List of Bangladesh 2015 illustrates that a large number of species have recently undergone rapid decline. This exhaustive process also highlights the importance of addressing dominant threats to wildlife; such as overexploitation and habitat degradation, and also helps to identify where future research is most needed. In seven volumes, the detailed information with geographical distribution, photo and the present status of the each species of the country have been included following the latest Global Red List Guidelines. These volumes highlight the threatened and Data Deficient species because these require more research and conservation efforts to protect their natural habitats. More than 200 learned, motivated and well-trained assessors, photographers, and surveyors worked actively to accomplish the assessment process, and finally the updated Red List status has been published.

The Red List of Bangladesh 2015 is seen as a significant milestone in the conservation history of the country. It is hoped that this work will be a catalyst for building awareness and creating consensus for increased conservation efforts.

The book unveiling ceremony was held on 22 June 2016 in Dhaka. Abdullah Al Islam Jakob, MP, Honourable Deputy Minister to the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF); Dr. Kamal Uddin Ahmed, Secretary of the MoEF; and Md. Yunus Ali, Chief Conservator of Forests of the Bangladesh Forest Department were present at the ceremony.

Ishtiaq Uddin Ahmad, Country Representative of IUCN Bangladesh and Dr. Mohammad Ali Reza Khan, Chief National Technical Expert of the Updating Species Red List of Bangladesh Project, were also present at that event, along with all the lead assessors, assessors, photographers, young professionals, scientists, and researchers. The event created a massive media buzz including on social media and essentially focused on the urgent need to conserve the threatened species of Bangladesh.

The Red List of Bangladesh 2015 has been prepared under the ‘Updating Species Red List of Bangladesh’, itself a sub-project under the ‘Strengthening Regional Cooperation for Wildlife Protection (SRCWP)’ of the Bangladesh Forest Department, and is funded by The World Bank. During the 2.5-year assessment process, members of the IUCN Global Species Programme, the IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN Bangladesh, Bangladesh Forest Department, teachers and scientists from several renowned universities, research institutes, and other governmental and non-governmental agencies closely worked together to ensure that the  most accurate analysis is undertaken in order to categorize the species.

The updated Red List is expected to create a revitalized momentum in biodiversity conservation in Bangladesh, with a sense of urgency, to further conduct ecosystems, plants, insects, and marine fish and crustaceans Red Listing identify their present status in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh further expresses its committed to taking all necessary steps towards better managing the wildlife and biodiversity of the country.

Further information of the project:

IUCN Red List of Bangladesh website:



DNA surveys offer hope to Vietnam's Critically Endangered Turtles

12 July 2016
Photo: eDNA methods are increasingly being used to survey endangered species such as the Vietnamese pond turtle © Adam Stern/Wikimed

Advanced environmental DNA techniques are being used extensively in Vietnam as researchers continue in their efforts to track down selected species of Critically Endangered reptiles. The methods have been successful in detecting the rare cave salamander (Proteus anguinus) in Montenegro, a project also funded by CEPF, turtles, other amphibians, and fish.

The approach, which involves surveying particular areas of potential habitat to see if an elusive animal has left behind its DNA, has had limited success in the country so far. But researchers aren't giving up however, and remain hopeful for the future.

Vietnam is home to some of the world's most endangered turtle species. To date, four have been listed in the top 25 most endangered turtle species in the world by IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species.

The Vietnamese pond turtle (Mauremys annamensis) and Zhou’s box turtle (Cuora zhoui) are both on this list, and very limited information on their natural population is available to support conservation efforts in the field.

Since its first description, based on specimens purchased from markets at Pingxian and Nanning in Guangxi province, China, Zhou’s box turtle has never been found in the wild, and its natural distribution range remains largely unknown. Surveys aiming to locate this species in China have also not returned any reliable data.

Most recently, in 2008, it was claimed that two specimens of Zhou’s box turtle had been collected from northern Vietnam in Cao Bang province. Earlier interviews and research in Tuyen Quang and Bac Can provinces has suggested that this species may occur in isolated wetlands in the region.

The Vietnamese pond turtle meanwhile, is particularly vulnerable due to hunting pressure and is restricted to a small area of central Vietnam. Current knowledge indicates that this species inhabits fragmented wetlands and ponds linked to rivers in lowland areas of seven provinces from Da Nang south to Phu Yen. The extreme rarity of the species means it has proved difficult to find in the wild. Surveys using traditional trapping techniques only captured the species once, in 2006. 

For both of these elusive reptiles, more efficient methods are needed to improve survey efforts in areas where the species are thought to remain.

Environmental DNA, also known as eDNA, is an exciting tool to investigate the presence of elusive species in areas of interest, especially aquatic environments.

Using complex metagenomic analysis of samples taken from soil, water or even air (that could possibly contain substances such as feces, mucus, skin or hair) researchers are sometimes able to identify whether a specific species has been present in a location of interest.

As the two species of turtle in question are both highly aquatic, the eDNA approach has offered potential to confirm their presence in lakes, ponds, and swamps, where the process is especially applicable.

Since 2014, as part of the ongoing search for the Zhou's box turtle, 120 interview surveys have been conducted in Quang Ninh province, in addition to hundreds of other sample collections in Tuyen Quang and Bac Can provinces. Thirty one eDNA samples have so far been analyzed, but work continues as no positive results have been detected yet. More surveys are planned in other northern provinces, and more DNA analyses are also under way.

However, researchers here are sadly starting to accept that it is very likely that the elusive species could have been eradicated from the wild.

Meanwhile, over the last two years, approximately 150 eDNA samples of the Vietnamese pond turtles have been collected in three provinces, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Phu Yen.

About half of the samples have so far been analyzed without detection of the species DNA. It is hoped by researchers that the other half will provide some hint about where the species might occur in natural wetlands. In the meantime, teams are working hard to find any trace of these two critically endangered turtles, in order to conserve them in Vietnam.



The First World Saola Day Calls for Urgent Action to Save the Critically Endangered “Asian Unicorn” in Vietnam and Lao PDR

11 July 2016
Saola. Photo: © David Hulse/WWF

On World Saola Day, WWF and IUCN’s Saola Working Group are calling for urgent action to save one of the world’s most endangered and rarely seen mammals -- the elusive Saola, often called the “Asian Unicorn” -- which was discovered 24 years ago and lives in the dense jungles of Vietnam and Lao PDR.

The Saola has only been recorded in the wild a handful of times by scientists since its discovery -- most recently in November 2013 camera trap photos that gave renewed hope for its survival after 15 years since the last photographic evidence. It is threatened by poaching snares and destruction of its habitat from illegal logging. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) designated the Saola “Critically Endangered” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ in 2006. 

Saola experts from around the world are urging the Governments of Vietnam and Lao PDR, along with conservationists and corporations, to rally and commit to saving a species that is on the brink. WWF-Vietnam is also launching the “Save Saola” campaign in order to provide a platform to raise awareness and increase commitment from both the public and private sectors in Saola conservation. Numerous conservation organizations and donors, representing some of the world’s most experienced conservationists and biologists, work year round on collaborations to save the Saola under the banner of the Saola Working Group, part of the Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.  

Saola. Photo: Bolikhamxay Provincial Conservation Unit“The Saola symbolizes everything that’s at stake for us. If we can save it, we can save our forests, wildlife and the ecosystem services such as freshwater that the people living here depend upon. So for us, this is not just a fight to save one endangered species. It is a fight to save what it represents,” said Dr. Van Ngoc Thinh, WWF-Vietnam’s Country Director.

Descended from mammals that roamed the planet during the last Ice Age, the Saola was only discovered by science in 1992, when a survey team from Vietnam’s Ministry of Forestry and WWF found a skull with long and unusually graceful horns in a hunter’s home and knew immediately that it was something they had never seen before. It would later prove to be one of the most spectacular zoological finds of the 20th Century: the first large mammal genus new to science in more than 50 years. 

“The Saola may now be the most endangered large mammal in the world. With luck, we have a small window left in which to save it – but to do so we must work urgently, creatively, and with collaboration,” said William Robichaud, Founding Coordinator of the Saola Working Group of IUCN and Saola Programme Coordinator of Global Wildlife Conservation.

The Saola resembles an antelope but is actually a member of the cattle family. The biggest threat today is poaching to supply the burgeoning demand in China and other newly affluent Asian countries for rare species – both for supposed medicinal uses and for exotic main courses at expensive restaurants. Although Saola is not the target, it falls victim to the criminal gangs of poachers who seek to profit from the diverse wildlife in Annamite Mountains. Accidentally caught in snares intended for other species, Saola can be left hanging upside down until they die of starvation or thirst. 

Habitat fragmentation and destruction caused by poorly planned development and illegal logging is the other main threat. River banks cloaked in natural vegetation and mist-shrouded forests are the Saola’s preferred feeding grounds, and both are being bulldozed, flooded and severed by infrastructure projects such as dams and the conversion of forest habitat into commercial crop land.

“The Saola may be small in stature but its importance to conservation in Lao PDR and Vietnam is huge,” said Mr. Somphone Bouasavanh, Country Director, WWF-Lao PDR. “We have an opportunity and a responsibility to ensure that the Saola and its forest home survive, using cutting edge science, the world’s leading conservationists and cooperation across borders.”

Amongst the early efforts to combat such threats, Saola protected areas were established in 2007 in the provinces of Quang Nam and Thua Thien-Hue with support from WWF-Vietnam. Under the Carbon and Biodiversity (CarBi) Project – supported by the German Development Bank KfW -- they have since grown into a network of protected areas across the Saola’s core range in Vietnam and Lao DPR, covering more than 200,000 hectares of Annamite forests. The forest guards WWF-Vietnam recruited from local villages had by the end of 2015 removed 75,295 snare traps and dismantled 1,000 poaching and illegal logging camps.

Despite heroic efforts from forest guards, the level of poaching and snaring remains high in Saola habitat, threatening its future survival. If the Saola is to survive in the wild, improved transboundary protected areas and increasing collaboration between Vietnam and Lao PDR are urgently needed to protect the remaining intact forest and prevent poaching. In addition, demand reduction programmes for wild meat and medicinal needs, especially in Vietnam, could reduce the poaching pressure that leads to Saola deaths.

One solution being discussed by the Saola Working Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission and the Governments of Vietnam and Lao PDR is a captive breeding programme. The goal is to provide an “insurance” population for re-introduction should the Saola become extinct in the wild. World-renowned experts in captive breeding and care of species like Saola would be recruited to ensure the captured Saola have the best chance to survive and breed.

Notes: A Storymap about the history and conservation of Saola can be found at:

About WWF Greater Mekong 

The Greater Mekong (Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR) is home to some of the planet’s most endangered wild species, including the Tiger, Saola, Asian Elephant, Mekong dolphin and Mekong Giant Catfish. Over 2,216 new species have been found in the Greater Mekong since 1997. WWF-Greater Mekong’s mission is a future where humans live in harmony with nature. To learn more about WWF’s activities:

About IUCN Species Survival Commission Saola Working Group

The Saola Working Group (SWG) is part of the Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC). The SWG was formed in 2006 in recognition of the need for urgent, coordinated action to save the saola from extinction. We held our first biennial meeting in 2009. In addition to being the main driver of Saola conservation in Lao PDR and Vietnam, the SWG advocates for conservation of the globally significant Annamite Mountains as a whole. Find out more at:



Whale Sharks, Winghead Sharks and Bornean Orangutans slide towards extinction

08 July 2016
Whale Shark. Photo: IUCN Photo Library/ © Andre Seale

New IUCN Red List assessments reveal that growing human pressures on Whale Sharks, Winghead Sharks and Bornean Orangutans are putting these species at an increasing risk of extinction. Whale sharks and winghead sharks are now listed as Endangered and Bornean orangutans as Critically Endangered – only one step from going extinct.

“It is alarming to see such emblematic species slide towards extinction,” says Jane Smart, Director of IUCN's Global Species Programme. “These new IUCN Red List assessments emphasise how urgent it is for the conservation community to act strategically to protect our planet’s incredible diversity of life. The world’s oceans and forests will only continue to provide us with food and other benefits if we preserve their capacity to do so.”

Numbers of Whale Sharks (Rhincodon typus), the world’s largest living fish, have more than halved over the last 75 years as these slow-moving sharks continue to be fished and killed by ship propellers.

Although conservation action in India, the Philippines and Taiwan has ended large-scale fishing of Whale Sharks in these countries, they continue to be fished in other locations, including southern China and Oman. As Whale Sharks and tuna are often present together, they are frequently caught by fishers targeting tuna. 

“While international Whale Shark trade is regulated through the species’ listing on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), more needs to be done domestically to protect whale sharks at a national level,” says Simon Pierce, lead Red List assessor, member of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) Shark Specialist Group, and co-founder of the Marine Megafauna Foundation.

Unregulated fishing is also behind the fast-falling numbers of the distinctive Winghead Shark (Eusphyra blochii), whose morphology makes it extremely vulnerable to entanglement in fishing nets. This species of hammerhead shark has moved from Near Threatened to Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Although it is difficult to say how many individuals remain, recent surveys of fish markets in Indonesia found only one winghead shark among approximately 20,000 sharks of other species. A similar pattern is expected throughout Asian countries where coastal fishing is intense and largely unregulated.

Bornean Orangutan. Photo: © Mike Prince (CC BY 2.0)Another IUCN Red List assessment reveals that the Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) has moved from Endangered to Critically Endangered – the highest risk category assigned by the IUCN Red List.

Bornean Orangutan populations are declining as the forests they live in are turned into oil palm, rubber or paper plantations, and others are killed by humans.

“This is the first time in many decades that we have a clear understanding of Bornean orangutan population trends,” says Erik Meijaard, one of the assessors of the species, member of the IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group and director of Borneo Futures – an initiative dedicated to preserving Borneo’s biodiversity. “As orangutans are hunted and pushed out of their habitats, losses to this slow-breeding species are enormous and will be extremely difficult to reverse.”

A full update to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™, including assessments of many other species, will be announced at the IUCN World Conservation Congress 2016 to be held in Hawai’i from 1 to 10 September.

The IUCN Congress is expected to see key decisions on improving the governance of the high seas under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and mitigating the impacts of palm oil expansion, among other issues.

Media registration for the IUCN Congress is free and can be accessed here



IUCN and GIZ launch review of best practice in wildlife law enforcement in Sub-Saharan African protected areas

08 July 2016
Black Rhinoceros in Borana conservancy. Photo: Stratton Hatfield.

Around the world, wildlife is being depleted by illegal activities at an alarming rate, depriving local populations and national economies of important natural capital.

Moreover, this loss has a significant impact on national and regional security. Poaching in Sub-Saharan Africa for example has been subject to a growing professionalization, largely controlled by armed groups that are increasingly organised in international networks due to large profit margins.

In 2015, for example, more than 1,300 rhinos were poached in Sub-Sahara Africa, and over 20,000 elephants Africa-wide. In addition, many other mammal species are being targeted, not to mention plants, birds, reptiles and even invertebrates. The illegal wildlife trade is a global problem affecting terrestrial and aquatic species alike.

What is the best way to protect wildlife on the ground from the growing threat of increasingly sophisticated poaching and trafficking networks? A new joint publication from IUCN and GIZ addresses that complex question in the context of Sub-Saharan African protected areas.

This review, which was conducted in cooperation with the Conservation Development Centre (CDC) and Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS), presents a series of principles of best practice from the field. In so doing, the authors aim to equip protected areas managers and related professionals in government, local communities, the private sector and NGOs with practical examples to support their patrolling, management and intelligence gathering work.

“Law enforcement is one important part of the response to the illegal wildlife trade. We will disseminate these best practices to all those working courageously to combat poaching and the illegal wildlife trade, including all organisations supported through our SOS Initiative. This publication complements other initiatives emphasizing the need to go “beyond enforcement” and work with the local communities. We need diverse and complementary efforts all along the supply chain from Africa to Asia to stop the trade” said Jean-Christophe Vié, Deputy Director of IUCN’s Global Species Programme and SOS Director.

Meanwhile the broad cross-section of issues that are addressed in the report highlights the reality that there are no stand-alone or universal solutions to tackling wildlife poaching in protected areas. Every situation is different – depending on geographies, species and resources available to name a few relevant factors.

Instead, the underlying analyses imply that successful wildlife law enforcement in protected areas depends on sustained and well-targeted actions across a number of inter-related components in three main fields: patrolling, management and intelligence gathering.

With more than 7,600 protected areas across the African continent, many famous for their wildlife as much as their geography and ecology, the fundamental value of effectively protecting this natural heritage relies on ensuring a strong connection between governance and practice. This publication supports that aim.

Commenting on the importance of this publication to addressing wildlife crime, Edgar Kaeslin, Advisor with the GIZ Polifund project to combat poaching and illegal wildlife trade in Africa and Asia, said, “this report takes a realistic and pragmatic look at the law enforcement approaches the professionals themselves know to work well, founded on the conviction that many protected area managers expressed to the report authors: ‘There is no substitute for a well-equipped, well-trained, and highly motivated ranger’.

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IUCN expresses concern at implications for the environment of Brexit

01 July 2016
European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker at plenary session assessing the outcome of the UK referendum, 28 June 2016.

IUCN is concerned about the implications for the environment of the British decision to leave the EU. In addition to the anticipated consequences for British environment policies, it poses challenges for future international cooperation and creates uncertainty around European environmental legislation.

EU Environmental policy is based on the principle that most environmental issues do not respect national boundaries and are better addressed by common action rather than unilaterally. The UK’s departure from the EU could profoundly affect decisions and positions related to the environment, potentially reducing ambitions on certain standards, such as climate change targets or reforms to the Common Agricultural Policy. The EU may also need to make expenditure adjustments in order to compensate for the loss of the UK’s net contribution to the EU budget.

More broadly, the UK`s departure could have wider consequences related to international trade and climate negotiations, as well as multilateral environmental agreements.

When the UK leaves, EU law will no longer apply, so Britain will need to design and implement new national policies in areas currently dominated by European laws and regulations. This may lead to less joined-up policy-making within the UK between sectors such as the environment, animal health and welfare, and agriculture. Increased fragmentation may consequently undermine common European standards that have previously been implemented to safeguard rights and freedom of trade and movement.

Luc Bas, Director of the IUCN Regional Office for Europe, says: “We can only be disappointed with this result – it will weaken the EU in international environmental debates and creates a great deal of uncertainty about the future. More than ever, the remaining 27 EU countries must now prove that a better future for Europe, its citizens and its environment can only be achieved by working closely together. We hope EU decision-makers work towards a Union that addresses the most critical issues of our time in a collaborative manner. This is especially crucial for major environmental challenges such as biodiversity loss and climate change, which affect both humans and nature.”

Where next with the science of ocean acidification?

30 June 2016
Farmed scallops at threat from ocean acidification, Chile. Photo credit: Nelson Suarez

How will ocean acidification affect fisheries around the world as carbon dioxide levels rise? This question is among the research priorities identified by leading scientists in a new report authored by IUCN experts.

Research shows that rising levels of dissolved carbon dioxide cause ocean acidification, which is expected to harm many marine species, but much remains unknown.

Which regions will be most affected, how quickly species will adapt, and how ecosystems will react to ocean acidification combined with other stresses such as pollution, warming and over-exploitation are on the research priority list identified in the report, Where next with the science of ocean acidification? Another urgent question is how these impacts will in turn affect fisheries and other ‘ecosystem services’ the oceans provide us with.

The oceans are now 30% more acidic than before the industrial revolution, and continued acidification could seriously affect marine life, especially shellfish, corals and plankton.

“Acidification is progressing at unprecedented rates, and we are already seeing the impacts on ecosystems and industries such as aquaculture,” says Carl Gustaf Lundin, Director of IUCN’s Global Marine and Polar Programme.

This is the case in the Pacific Northwest, for instance, where oyster larvae mortality has been linked to the acidity of the water.

The effects on fisheries could have repercussions on food security. Polar and sub-polar regions – important fishing grounds – are particularly vulnerable to acidification, as carbon dioxide absorbs more readily in cold water.

Another ‘ecosystem service’ provided by the oceans is the oxygen pumped out by plankton, equivalent to roughly half of the earth’s oxygen. With ocean acidification thought to affect plankton, it could also have an impact on oxygen production.

To make sure research is translated into action, data on water acidity and the effects of ocean acidification must be global, the researchers say:

“At present material used to illustrate effects of ocean acidification to inform policy makers or drive action on addressing this issue are being drawn from too few examples,” according to the report.

Ocean conservation is one of the themes to be discussed at the IUCN World Conservation Congress, 2016.

You can see the full report here.

IUCN Director General’s statement on World Environment Day

29 June 2016
Banana Orchid (Myrmecophila thomsoniana) is listed as Endangered on The IUCN Red List. Photo: José Pestana

It’s big business, it’s a growing threat to our environment, and it’s illegal. It is wildlife trafficking.

Latest estimates are that the illegal trade in wildlife is worth between US$ 50 billion and $150 billion a year and it is driving numerous species towards extinction, so we need to do all we can to stamp it out.

As many as 20,000 African elephants were poached for their ivory in 2013 alone, illegal hunting of rhinos for their horns is still rising, and it is estimated that one million pangolins have been killed for their scales and meat over the past decade.

But it is not just charismatic animals whose survival is threatened – birds, like the helmeted hornbill, reptiles, fish and amphibians, as well as fungi and plants, such as some orchid species, are also menaced by trafficking.

Global demand for many animals and plants and the products made from them has seen the illegal wildlife trade burgeon into a major form of organised crime that rivals trafficking in drugs, arms and people as a source of illicit profit.    

The trade not only threatens wildlife; it undermines international security, damages rural communities by threatening their livelihoods, creates a degree of insecurity in the areas where poaching takes place that serves to arrest local investment and thus slow development and poverty reduction, robs us all of our natural heritage, and poses a risk to all of humanity by eroding the ecosystems and biodiversity on which we depend.

That’s why we wholeheartedly support the message from this year’s World Environment Day:  zero tolerance for illegal wildlife trade.

IUCN also welcomes the recent report from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime which offers solutions to closing loopholes in international efforts to fight trafficking, by calling on all governments to pass national laws banning possession of wildlife and timber illegally harvested in other countries.

IUCN has been in forefront of efforts to combat this form of organised crime by, for instance, organising international summits to agree measures to protect African elephants and Asian rhinos. IUCN is a partner in United for Wildlife and also provides information on trafficking to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES, as well as advising the World Bank’s Global Wildlife Program which funds anti-poaching efforts.   

At the IUCN World Conservation Congress 2016 in Hawai‘i this September, we will be highlighting wildlife trafficking in one of six high-level dialogues and numerous other sessions where we will be coming up with measures we can all take to end it.

These need to go beyond new legislation and stronger law enforcement to reducing demand from end consumers through behaviour change programmes, including education about where the products they are buying come from, as well as including local communities in anti-poaching efforts.

This year’s World Environment Day encourages us all to celebrate the species under threat from the poachers and traffickers and inspires us to take action, together and as individuals, to make sure this form of organised crime – and not the wildlife it preys on – is eradicated...

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