Analyses of The IUCN Red List



Scientific Papers



Spineless: Status and Trends of the World's Invertebrates (2012) [4.13 MB]

Collen, B., Böhm, M., Kemp, R. and Baillie, J.E.M. (editors)

Compiled by leading invertebrate experts on the status and trends of the world's invertebrates; this report highlights the vital role which invertebrates play in ecosystem, provisioning, and regulatory services. An example of their huge economic importance is the predicted loss of $100 million to fisheries by 2015 if the current trend in coral reef degradation continues. The publication can also be viewed online.



Evolution Lost: Status and Trends of the World's Vertebrates (2010) [6.92 MB]

Baillie, J.E.M., Griffiths, J., Turvey, S.T., Loh, J. and Collen, B. (editors)

Within the next century we stand to lose what could amount to one quarter of all vertebrates. The report ‘Evolution Lost’ has been produced by ZSL in collaboration with WWF, IUCN and SSC. The publication can also be viewed online.



Wildlife in a Changing World – An analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ (2009) [4.06 MB]

Vié, J.-C., Hilton-Taylor, C. and Stuart, S.N. (editors)

Includes an overview of how The IUCN Red List is used to guide conservation planning, reviews the state of the world's species, and has various chapters focussing on freshwater biodiversity, marine species, the Sampled Red List Index initiative, the impcats of climate change and a regional case-study showing what is happening in the Mediterranean. Also available in French [5.13 MB]. The publication can also be viewed online.



2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. A Global Species Assessment (2004) [3.73 MB]

Baillie, J.E.M., Hilton-Taylor, C. and Stuart, S.N. (editors)

Analysis of the data held in the 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Includes sections discussing extinctions in recent time, causes of threat to species, where on the planet most threatened species occur and why, and examples of conservation actions that have proven effective in rescuing species from the brink of extinction.



2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2000) [1.24 MB]

Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler)

Analysis of the data held in the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Includes a CD-ROM version of the 2000 IUCN Red List.




Scientific Papers:


A retrospective evaluation of the global decline of carnivores and ungulates
Di Marco, M., L. Boitani, D. Mallon, M. Hoffmann, A. Iacucci, E. Meijaard, P. Visconti, J. Schipper, C. Rondinini 2014. Conservation Biology: DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12249.


Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays
Dulvy, N.K., Fowler, S.L., Musick, J.A., Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M., Harrison, L.R., Carlson, J.K., Davidson, L.N.K., Fordham, S.V., Francis, M.P., Pollock, C.M., Simpfendorfer, C.A., Burgess, G.H., Carpenter, K.E., Compagno, L.J.V., Ebert, D.A., Gibson, C., Heupel, M.R.,  Livingstone, S.R., Sanciangco, J.C., Stevens, J.D., Valenti, S. and White, W.T. 2014. eLife 3: e00590. DOI: Download PDF.



Facinating and forgotten: the conservation status of the world's sea snakes
Elfes, C.T., Livingstone, S.R., Lane, A., Lukoschek, V., Sanders, K.L., Courtney, A.J.,  Gatus, J.L., Guinea, M., Lobo, A.S., Milton, D., Rasmussen, A.R., Read, M., White, M.D., Sanciangco, J., Alcala, A., Heatwole, H., Karns, D.R., Seminoff, J.A., Voris H.K., Carpenter, K.R. and Murphy, J.C. 2013. Herptelogical Conservation and Biology 8(1): 37–52. Download PDF.


Conus: First Comprehensive Conservation Red List Assessment of a Marine Gastropod Mollusc Genus
Peters, H., O'Leary, B.C., Hawkins, J.P., Carpenter, K.E., Roberts C.M.. 2013. PLoS ONE 8(12): e83353. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083353. Download here.


Global conservation status and research needs for tarpons (Megalopidae), ladyfishes (Elopidae) and bonefishes (Albulidae)
Adams, A.J., Horodysky, A.Z., McBride R.S., Guindon, K., Shenker, J., MacDonald T.C., Harwell H.D., Ward R. and Carpenter K. 2013. Fish and Fisheries 15(2): 280–311. DOI: 10.1111/faf.12017.


Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery
de Mitcheson, Y.S., Craig, M.T., Bertoncini, A.A., Carpenter, K.E., Cheung, W.W.L., Choat, J.H., Cornish, A.S., Fennessy, S.T., Ferreira, B.P., Heemstra, P.C., Liu, M., Myers, R.F., Pollard, D.A., Rhodes, K.L., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B.C., Samoilys, M.A., Sanciangco, J. 2013. Fish and Fisheries 14(2): 119–136. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00455.x. Download PDF.


The Likelihood of Extinction of Iconic and Dominant Herbivores and Detritivores of Coral Reefs: The Parrotfishes and Surgeonfishes
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B.A., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R. Craig, M.T. Erdi Lazuardi, M., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., Nañola Jr., C.L., Pardede, S., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Sancianngo, J.C., Stockwell, B., Harwell, H. and Carpenter, K.E2012. PLoS ONE 7(7): e39825. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039825. Download here.

Patterns of extinction risk and threat for marine vertebrates and habitat species in the Tropical Eastern Pacific.
Polidoro, B.A., Brooks, T., Carpenter, K.E., Edgar, G.J., Henderson, S., Sanciangco, J. and Robertson, D.R. 2012. Marine Ecology Progress Series 448: 93–104. DOI: 10.3354/meps09545.



High Value and Long-Lived: A Double Jeopardy for Threatened Tunas and Billfishes
Collette, B.B., Carpenter, K.E.,  Polidoro, B.A.,  Juan-Jordá, M.J.,  Boustany, A.,  Die, D.J., Elfes, C., Fox, W.,  Graves, J.,  Harrison, L., McManus, R., Minte-Vera, C.V.,  Nelson, R., Restrepo, V., Schratwieser, J., Sun, C.-L.,  Amorim, A., Brick Peres, M., Canales, C., Cardenas, G.,  Chang, S.-K., Chiang, W.-C., de Oliveira Leite, N., Harwell, H., Lessa, R., Lucena Fredou, F.,  Oxenford, H.A., Serra, R., Shao, K.-T., Sumaila, R., Wang, S.-P., Watson, R. and Yáñez, E. 2011. Science 333(6040): 291–292. DOI: 10.1126/science.1208730.

Conservation Status of the World’s Hagfish Species and the Loss of Phylogenetic Diversity and Ecosystem Function.
Knapp, L., Mincarone, M.M., Harwell, H., Polidoro, B., Sanciangco, J. and Carpenter, K. 2011. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(5): 401–411. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.1202.


Extinction Risk Assessment of the World’s Seagrass Species
Short, F.T., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S.R., Carpenter, K.E., Bandeira, S., Bujang, J.S., Calumpong, H.P., Carruthers, T.J.B., Coles, R.G., Dennison, W.C., Erftemeijer, P.L.A., Fortes, M.D., Freeman, A.S., Jagtap, T.G., Kamal, A.H.M., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., La Nafie, Y.A., Nasution, I.M., Orth, R.J., Prathep, A., Sanciangco, J.C., van Tussenbroed, B., Vergara, S.G., Waycott, M. and Zieman, J.C. 2011.Biological Conservation 144(7): 1961–1971. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010.


Conservation Status of Marine Biodiversity in Oceania: an Analysis of Marine Species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Polidoro, B.A., Elfes, C.T., Sanciago, J.C., Pippard, H. and Carpenter, K.E. 2011. Journal of Marine Biology 2011: 247030. DOI:




The impact of conservation on the status of the world’s vertebrates
Hoffmann, M., Hilton-Taylor, C., Angulo, A., Böhm, M., Brooks, T.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Carpenter, K.E., Chanson, J., Collen, B., Cox, N.A., Darwall, W.R.T., Dulvy, N.K., Harrison, L.R., Katariya, V., Pollock, C.M., Quader, S., Richman, N.I., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Tognelli, M.F., Vié, J-C., Aguiar, J.M., Allen, D.J., Allen, G.R., Amori, G., Ananjeva, N.B., Andreone, F., Andrew, P., Ortiz, A.L.A., Baillie, J.E.M., Baldi, R., Bell, B.D., Biju, S.D., Bird, J.P., Black-Decima, P., Blanc, J.J., Bolano, F., Bolivar-G, W., Burfield, I.J., Burton, J.A., Capper, D.R., Castro, F., Catullo, G., Cavanagh, R.D., Channing, A., Chao, N.L., Chenery, A.M., Chiozza, F., Clausnitzer, V., Collar, N.J., Collett, L.C., Collette, B.B., Cortez Fernandez, C.F., Craig, M.T., Crosby, M.J., Cumberlidge, N., Cuttelod, A., Derocher, A.E., Diesmos, A.C., Donaldson, J.S., Duckworth, J.W., Dutson, G., Dutta, S.K., Emslie, R.H., Farjon, A., Fowler, S., Freyhof, J., Garshelis, D.L., Gerlach, J., Gower, D.J., Grant, T.D., Hammerson, G.A., Harris, R.B., Heaney, L.R., Blair Hedges, S., Hero, J-M., Hughes, B., Hussain, S.A., Icochea M, J., Inger, R.F., Ishii, N., Iskandar, D.T., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kaneko, Y., Kottelat, M., Kovacs, K.M., Kuzmin, S.L., Marca, E.L., Lamoreux, J.F., Lau, M.W.N., Lavilla, E.O., Leus, K., Lewison, R.L., Lichtenstein, G., Livingstone, S.R., Lukoschek, V., Mallon, D.P., McGowan, P.J.K., McIvor, A., Moehlman, P.D., Molur, S., Alonso, A.M., Musick, J.A., Nowell, K., Nussbaum, R.A., Olech, W., Orlov, N.L., Papenfuss, T.J., Parra-Olea, G., Perrin, W.F., Polidoro, B.A., Pourkazemi, M., Racey, P.A., Ragle, J.S., Ram, M., Rathbun, G., Reynolds, R.P., Rhodin, A.G.J., Richards, S.J., Rodríguez, L.O., Ron, S.R., Rondinini, C., Rylands, A.B., Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y., Sanciangco, J.C., Sanders, K.L., Santos-Barrera, G., Schipper, J., Self-Sullivan, C., Shi, Y., Shoemaker, A., Short, F.T., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Silvano, D.L., Smith, K.G., Smith, A.T., Snoeks, J., Stattersfield, A.J., Symes, A.J., Taber, A.B., Talukdar, B.K., Temple, H.J., Timmins, R., Tobias, J.A., Tsytsulina, K., Tweddle, D., Ubeda, C., Valenti, S.V., Paul van Dijk, P., Veiga, L.M., Veloso, A., Wege, D.C., Wilkinson, M., Williamson, E.A., Xie, F., Young, B.E., Akçakaya, R.H., Bennun, L., Blackburn, T.M., Boitani, L., Dublin, H.T., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gascon, C., Lacher, Jr, T.E., Mace, G.M., Mainka, S.A., J., McNeely, J.A., Mittermeier, R.A., Reid, G.M., Rodriguez, J.P., Rosenberg, A.A., Samways, M.J., Smart, J., Stein, B.A. and Stuart, S.N. 2010. Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1194442.  Follow links for Abstract and/or Reprint of the paper.


The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern
Polidoro, B.A., Carpenter K.E., Collins, L., Duke, N.C., Ellison, A.M., Ellison, J.C., Farnsworth, E.J., Fernando E.S.,  Kathiresan ,K., Koedam, N.E., Livingstone, S.R., Miyagi, T., Moore ,G.E., Nam, V.N.,  Ong, J.E., Primavera, J.H., Salmo III, S.G,  Sanciangco, J.,  Sukardjo, S., Wang, Y. and Hong Yong, J.W. 2010. PLoS ONE 5: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010095Download PDF.


Barometer of Life
Stuart, S.N., Wilson, E.O., McNeely, J.A., Mittermeier, R.A. and Roríguez, J.P. 2010. Science 328(5975): 177. DOI:10.1126/science.1188606.



The Status of the World’s Land and Marine Mammals: Diversity, Threat, and Knowledge
Schipper, J., Chanson, J.S., Chiozza, F., Cox, N.A., Hoffmann, M., Katariya, V., Lamoreux, J., Rodrigues, A.S., Stuart, S.N., Temple, H.J., Baillie, J., Boitani, L., Lacher, T.E., Mittermeier, R.A., Smith, A.T., Absolon, D., Aguiar, J.M., Amori, G., Bakkour, N., Baldi, R., Berridge, R.J., Bielby, J., Black, P.A., Blanc, J.J., Brooks, T.M., Burton, J.A., Butynski, T.M., Catullo, G., Chapman, R., Cokeliss, Z., Collen, B., Conroy, J., Cooke, J.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Derocher, A.E., Dublin, H.T., Duckworth, J.W., Emmons, L., Emslie, R.H., Festa-Bianchet, M., Foster, M., Foster, S., Garshelis, D.L., Gates, C., Gimenez-Dixon, M., Gonzalez, S., Gonzalez-Maya, J.F., Good, T.C., Hammerson, G., Hammond, P.S., Happold, D., Happold, M., Hare, J., Harris, R.B., Hawkins, C.E., Haywood, M., Heaney, L.R., Hedges, S., Helgen, K.M., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hussain, S.A., Ishii, N., Jefferson, T.A., Jenkins, R.K.B., Johnston, C.H., Keith, M., Kingdon, J., Knox, D.H., Kovacs, K.M., Langhammer, P., Leus, K., Lewison, R., Lichtenstein, G., Lowry, L.F., Macavoy, Z., Mace, G.M., Mallon, D.P., Masi, M., McKnight, M.W., Medellin, R.A., Medici, P., Mills, G., Moehlman, P.D., Molur, S., Mora, A., Nowell, K., Oates, J.F., Olech, W., Oliver, W.R.L., Oprea, M., Patterson, B.D., Perrin, W.F., Polidoro, B.A., Pollock, C., Powel, A., Protas, Y., Racey, P., Ragle, J., Ramani, P., Rathbun, G., Reeves, R.R., Reilly, S.B., Reynolds, J.E., Rondinini, C., Rosell-Ambal, R.G., Rulli, M., Rylands, A.B., Savini, S., Schank, C.J., Sechrest, W., Self-Sullivan, C., Shoemaker, A., Sillero-Zubiri, C., De Silva, N., Smith, D.E., Srinivasulu, C., Stephenson, P.J., van Strien, N., Talukdar, B.K., Taylor, B.L., Timmins, R., Tirira, D.G., Tognelli, M.F., Tsytsulina, K., Veiga, L.M., Vie, J.C., Williamson, E.A., Wyatt, S.A., Xie, Y. and Young, B.E2008. Science 322(5899): 225–230. DOI:

One-third of reef building corals face extinction from climate change and local impacts
Carpenter, K.E., Muhammad, A., Aeby, G., Aronson, R.B., Banks, S., Bruckner, A., Chiriboga, A.I., Cortés, J., Delbeek, J.C., DeVantier, L., Edgar, G.J., Edwards, A.J., Fenner, D., Guzmán, H.M., Hoeksema, B.W., Hodgson, G., Johan, O., Licuanan, W.Y., Livingstone, S.R., Lovell, E.R., Moore, J.A., Obura, D.O., Ochavillo, D., Polidoro, B.A., Precht, W.F., Quibilan, M.C., Reboton, C., Richards, Z.T., Rogers, A.D., Sanciangco, J.C., Sheppard, A., Sheppard, C., Smith, J., Stuart, S.N., Turak, E., Veron, J.E.N., Wallace, C.C., Weil, E. and Wood, E. 2008. Science 321(5888): 560–563. DOI: 10.1126/science.1159196.



Response to comment on "Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide."
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fischman, D.L. and Waller, R.W. 2005. Science 309(5743): 1999. DOI: 10.1126/science.1113265.


The past and future of extant amphibians. Response
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S., Fischman, D.L. and Waller, R.W. 2005. Science 308(5718): 49–50. DOI: 10.1126/science.308.5718.49c.


Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fischman, D.L. and Waller, R.W. 2004. Science 306(5702): 1783–1786. DOI: 10.1126/science.1103538Download PDF.